# Publications by: Steven Armfield

# Also publishes as (Steve W. Armfield, St.W. Armfield, S. W. Armfield, Steven W. Armfield)

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**78**.

Nguyen, Duy, Kirkpatrick, Michael P., Williamson, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, W.
(2022)
*Turbulence structure in a very sharp thermally stratified open-channel meander.*
Physics of Fluids, 34. 035130.

Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., and Khatamifar, Mehdi
(2021)
*Scalings for unsteady natural convection boundary layer under
time-varying heating flux in a small Prandtl number fluid.*
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 27. 101351.

Zhou, L., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, W.
(2020)
*Natural convection in a cavity with time-dependent flux boundary.*
In: Proceedings of the 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 67. From: AFCM2020: 22nd Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 7-10 December 2020, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Awin, L.A., Armfield, S.W., Williamson, N., Kirkpatrick, M.P., and Lin, W.
(2019)
*Numerical simulation for entrainment of forced turbulent fountains.*
In: ANZIAM Journal: proceedings of the Computational Techniques and Applications Conference (60) C156-C171. From: CTAC 2018: 19th Biennial Computational Techniques and Applications Conference, 27-30 November 2018, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Khatamifar, Mehdi, Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., Holmes, David, and Kirkpatrick, M.P.
(2017)
*Conjugate natural convection heat transfer in a partitioned differentially-heated square cavity.*
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 81. pp. 92-103.

Gao, Wenfeng, Lin, Wenxian, Liu, Tao, Armfield, S.W., and Li, Ming
(2017)
*Penetration height of transitional round fountains in a linearly stratified fluid.*
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 81. pp. 79-91.

Khatamifar, M., Lin, W., Holmes, D., Armfield, S.W., and Kirkpatrick, M.P.
(2016)
*Transient laminar conjugate natural convection in a cavity with a finite thickness and conductivity partition.*
In: Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 672. From: AFMC 2016: 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 5-8 December 2016, Perth, WA, Australia.

Zhou, L., Armfield, S.W., Williamson, N., Kirkpatrick, M.P., and Lin, Wenxian
(2016)
*Transient natural convection flow in a cavity subject to time-varying sidewall heating and cooling.*
In: Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 516. From: AFMC 2016: 20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 5-8 December 2016, Perth, WA, Australia.

Mahmud, Hasan, Lin, Wenxian, Gao, Wenfeng, Armfield, S.W., and He, Yinghe
(2016)
*Interaction behavior of triple transitional round fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 62 (Part B). pp. 437-454.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2016)
*Scalings for unsteady natural convection boundary layers on a vertical plate at time-dependent temperature.*
International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 111. pp. 78-99.

Williamson, N., Armfield, S.W., Lin, Wenxian, and Kirkpatrick, M.P.
(2016)
*Stability and Nusselt number scaling for inclined differentially heated cavity flow.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 97. pp. 787-793.

Inam, Mohammad Ilias, Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., and He, Yinghe
(2016)
*Correlations for maximum penetration heights of transitional plane fountains in linearly stratified fluids.*
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 77. pp. 64-77.

Inam, Mohammad Ilias, Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., and He, Yinghe
(2015)
*Asymmetry and penetration of transitional plane fountains in
stratified fluid.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 90. pp. 1125-1142.

Xiao, Y., Lin, W., McCormack, J., He, Y., Armfield, S.W., and Kirkpatrick, M.P.
(2015)
*Turbulent mixing in cross sheared stratified flow.*
In: Proceedings of the 9th Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena. 4C-5. pp. 1-6. From: TSFP-9: 9th Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, 30 June - 3 July 2015, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Mahmud, Hasan, Lin, Wenxian, Gao, Wenfeng, Hill, Blair, Armfield, S.W., and He, Yinghe
(2015)
*Behavior of the interaction between twin transitional round fountains in a homogeneous fluid, Part 1: experimental study.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 86. pp. 957-972.

Mahmud, Hasan, Lin, Wenxian, Gao, Wenfeng, Armfield, St.W., and He, Yinghe
(2015)
*Behavior of the interaction between twin transitional round fountains in a homogeneous fluid, Part 2: numerical study.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 86. pp. 973-991.

Williamson, N., Armfield, S.W., Kirkpatrick, M.P, and Lin, Wenxian
(2015)
*Bifurcation of natural convection flow in an inclined differentially heated closed square cavity.*
Computational Thermal Sciences, 7 (5-6). pp. 417-425.

Xiao, Y., Lin, W., He, Y., Armfield, S.W., and Kirkpatrick, M.P.
(2015)
*Hydrodynamic stability analysis of sheared convective boundary layer flows in stratified environments.*
In: Proceedings of the 9th Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena. P-51. pp. 1-6. From: TSFP-9: 9th Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, 30 June - 3 July 2015, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Inam, M.I., Lin, W., Armfield, S.W., and He, Y.
(2014)
*Penetration height and onset of asymmetric behaviour of transitional plane fountains in linearly stratified fluids.*
In: Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 427. From: AFMC 2014: 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 8-11 December 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Khatamifar, M., D’Urso, R,, Lin, W., Holmes, D., Armfield, S.W., and Kirkpatrick, M.P.
(2014)
*A numerical and experimental study on the unsteady conjugate natural convection boundary layers in a water filled rectangular cavity with a conducting partition wall at varied locations.*
In: Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 324. From: AFMC 2014: 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 8-11 December 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Inam, Mohammad Ilias, Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, Steven W., and He, Yinghe
(2014)
*Asymmetric transition for high froude number plane fountains in linearly stratified fluids.*
In: Proceedings of the 15th International Heat Transfer Conference. 8812. pp. 1-14. From: IHTC-15: 15th International Heat Transfer Conference, 10-15 August 2014, Kyoto, Japan.

Xiao, Y., Lin, W., McCormack, J., Armfield, S.W., Kirkpatrick, M.P., and He, Y.
(2014)
*Coherent structures in cross sheared flows in weakly stratified environments.*
In: Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 84. From: AFMC 2014: 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 8-11 December 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Stewart, Nicholas J., Holmes, David W., Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, Steven W., and Kirkpatrick, Michael P.
(2014)
*Comparison of semi-implicit and explicit finite difference algorithms on highly parallel processing architectures.*
Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553. pp. 193-198.

Xiao, Y., Lin, W., Armfield, S.W., Kirkpatrick, M.P., and He, Y.
(2014)
*Hydrodynamic stability analysis on inviscid cross sheared stratified flows.*
In: Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 82. From: AFMC 2014: 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 8-11 December 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Armfield, Steven W., Kirkpatrick, M.P., Williamson, Nicholas, and Lin, Wenxian
(2014)
*Natural convection in an inclined differentially heated square cavity.*
In: Proceedings of the 15th International Heat Transfer Conference. 9053. pp. 1-10. From: IHTC-15: 15th International Heat Transfer Conference, 10-15 August 2014, Kyoto, Japan.

Armfield, S.W., Williamson, N., Lin, Wenxian, and Kirkpatrick, M.P.
(2014)
*Nusselt number scaling in an inclined differentially heated square cavity.*
In: Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 462. From: AFMC 2014: 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 8-11 December 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Lin, W., Armfield, S.W., Liu, T., and Gao, W.
(2014)
*Scaling analysis of unsteady natural convection boundary layers on an evenly heated plate with a time-dependent temperature.*
In: Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 531. From: AFMC 2014: 19th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 8-11 December 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Lin, Wenxian, Liu, Tao, Gao, Wenfeng, and Armfield, Steven W.
(2014)
*Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of unsteady transitional round fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
Applied Mechanics and Materials, 553. pp. 150-155.

Stewart, Nicholas J., Holmes, David W., Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, Steven W., and Kirkpatrick, Michael P.
(2013)
*Direct numeric simulation of sheared convective boundary layer entrainment with GPUs.*
In: Proceedings of the 5th Asia Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th International Symposium on Computational Mechanics. 1392. pp. 1-8. From: APCOM and ISCM 2013: 5th Asia Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th International Symposium on Computational Mechanics, 11-14 December 2013, Singapore.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2013)
*Direct numerical simulation of unsteady natural convection boundary layers on an evenly heated plate with time-varying heating flux.*
In: Proceedings of the 5th Asia Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th International Symposium on Computational Mechanics. 1292. pp. 1-8. From: APCOM and ISCM 2013: 5th Asia Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th International Symposium on Computational Mechanics, 11-14 December 2013, Singapore.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2013)
*Scalings for unsteady natural convection boundary layers on an evenly heated plate with time-dependent heating flux.*
Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), E88 (6). 063013. pp. 1-17.

Srinarayana, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, Wenxian
(2013)
*Behaviour of laminar plane fountains with a parabolic inlet velocity profile in a homogeneous fluid.*
International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 67. pp. 87-95.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2012)
*Unified Prandtl number scaling for start-up and fully developed natural-convection boundary layers for both Pr ≳1 and Pr ≳1 fluids with isothermal heating.*
Physical Review E, 86 (6). 066312. pp. 1-10.

Gao, Wenfeng, Lin, Wenxian, Liu, Tao, and Armfield, Steven
(2012)
*Onset of asymmetry and three-dimensionality in transitional round fountains in a linearly stratified fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 213. pp. 1-4. From: 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 3-7 December 2012, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia.

Mahmud, H., Hill, B., Gao, W., Lin, W., He, Y., and Armfield, S.W.
(2012)
*PIV study on the interaction of triple transitional round fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 93. pp. 1-4. From: 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 3-7 December 2012, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia.

Mahmud, H., Lin, Wenxian, Gao, Wenfeng, He, Yinghe, and Armfield, S.W.
(2012)
*Direct numerical simulation of interaction of twin transitional fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Methods (ICCM 2012). 149. pp. 1-8. From: 4th International Conference on Computational Methods (ICCM 2012), 25-28 NOV 2012, Gold Coast, Australia.

Liu, Tao, Lin, Wenxian, Gao, Wenfeng, and Armfield, Steven W.
(2012)
*Onset asymmetry and three-dimensionality in transitional round fountains in homogeneous fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. FM05-003. pp. 1-2. From: ICTAM 2012: 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 19-24 August 2012, Beijing, China.

Mahmud, Hasan, Hill, Blair, Gao, Wenfeng, Lin, Wenxian, He, Yinghe, and Armfield, Steven
(2012)
*PIV Study of behavior of interaction of twin fountains in homogenous fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. FM05-048. pp. 1-2. From: ICTAM 2012: 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 19-24 August 2012, Beijing, China.

Williamson, Nicholas, Armfield, Steven W., and Lin, Wenxian
(2011)
*Forced turbulent fountain flow behaviour.*
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 671. pp. 535-558.

Williamson, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, Wenxian
(2010)
*Transition behaviour of weak turbulent fountains.*
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 655. pp. 306-326.

Srinarayana, N., Williamson, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, Wenxian
(2010)
*Line fountain behavior at low-Reynolds number.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53 (9-10). pp. 2065-2073.

Srinarayana, N., Armfield, S.W., Behnia, M., and Lin, Wenxian
(2010)
*Critical Froude number for transition from a steady to an unsteady fountain injected into a homogeneous fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 17th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. pp. 1-3. From: 17th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 5-9 December 2010, Auckland, New Zealand.

Williamson, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, Wenxian
(2010)
*Entrainment in turbulent fountain flow.*
In: Proceedings of the 17th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. pp. 1-4. From: 17th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 5-9 December 2010, Auckland, New Zealand.

Bednarz, Tomasz P., Lin, Wenxian, Patterson, John C., Lei, Chengwang, and Armfield, Steven W.
(2009)
*Scaling for unsteady thermo-magnetic convection boundary layer of paramagnetic fluids of Pr > 1 in micro-gravity conditions.*
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 30 (6). pp. 1157-1170.

Patterson, John C., Lei, Chengwang, Armfield, Steve W., and Lin, Wenxian
(2009)
*Scaling of unsteady natural convection boundary layers with a non-instantaneous initiation.*
International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 48 (10). pp. 1843-1852.

Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., Patterson, J.C., and Lei, Chengwang
(2009)
*Prandtl number scaling of unsteady natural convection boundary layers for Pr>1 fluids under isothermal heating.*
Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 79 (6). 066313.

Srinarayana, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, W.X.
(2009)
*Impinging plane fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52. pp. 2614-2623.

Srinarayana, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, Wenxian
(2009)
*Laminar plane fountains impinging on a ceiling with an opposing heat flux.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52. pp. 4545-4552.

Williamson, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, W.
(2008)
*Direct numerical simulation of turbulent intermediate Froude number fountain flow.*
ANZIAM Journal, 50. pp. 16-30.

Williamson, N., Srinarayana, N., Armfield, S.W., McBain, G.D., and Lin, W.
(2008)
*Low-Reynolds-number fountain behaviour.*
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 608. pp. 297-317.

Lei, Chengwang, Armfield, Steven, and Patterson, John
(2008)
*Unsteady natural convection in a water-filled isosceles triangular enclosure heated from below.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51 (11-12). pp. 2637-2650.

Srinarayana, N., McBain, G.D., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, W.X.
(2008)
*Height and stability of laminar plane fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51. pp. 4717-4727.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2008)
*Onset of entrainment in transitional round fountains.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51. pp. 5226-5237.

Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., and Patterson, J.C.
(2008)
*Unsteady natural convection boundary-layer flow of a linearly-stratified fluid with Pr < 1 on an evenly heated semi-infinite vertical plate.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51. pp. 327-343.

Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., and Patterson, J.C.
(2007)
*Direct simulation of transitional plane fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
ANZIAM Journal, 48. pp. 692-708.

Williamson, N., Srinarayana, N., Armfield, S.W., McBain, G., and Lin, W.
(2007)
*Characterisation of Low Reynolds Number Fountain Behaviour.*
In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. pp. 699-703. From: 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 3-7 December 2007, Gold Coast, Australia.

Srinarayana, N., Armfield, S.W., and Lin, W.X.
(2007)
*Numerical simulation of free-fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. pp. 856-861. From: 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 3-7 December 2007, Gold Coast, Australia.

Nateghi, M, Patterson, J., and Armfield, S.W.
(2007)
*Stratified natural convection flow in rectangular open cavities.*
ANZIAM Journal, 48. pp. 542-557.

Lin, Wenxian, Armfield, S.W., and Patterson, John C.
(2007)
*Cooling of a Pr<1 fluid in a rectangular container.*
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 574. pp. 85-108.

Lei, C., Armfield, S.W., Patterson, J.C., and O'Neill, A.
(2007)
*Effects of corner geometry and adiabatic extensions on heat transfer through a differentially heated square cavity.*
In: 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. pp. 125-128. From: 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, 3-7 DEC 2007, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Armfield, S.W., Patterson, John C., and Lin, Wenxian
(2007)
*Scaling investigation of the natural convection boundary layer on an evenly heated plate.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 50 (7-8). pp. 1592-1602.

Srinarayana, N., Lin, W., McBain, G.D., and Armfield, S.W.
(2006)
*Direct simulation of impinging plane fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
In: Proceedings of the 13th International Heat Transfer Conference. From: 13th International Heat Transfer Conference, 13-18 August 2006, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Lin, W., and Armfield, S.W.
(2006)
*Direct simulation of transitional axisymmetric fountains in a homogeneous environment.*
In: Proceedings of the 13th International Heat Transfer Conference. From: 13th International Heat Transfer Conference, 13-18 August 2006, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2005)
*Unsteady natural convection on an evenly heated vertical plate for Prandtl number Pr<1.*
Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 72 (6). 066309-1.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, SW
(2005)
*Long-term behaviour of cooling fluid in a vertical cylinder.*
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 48. pp. 53-66.

Armfield, S.W., McBain, G.D., Lin, W., and Jiracheewanun, S.
(2005)
*Natural convection boundary layers on evenly heated plates.*
In: Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Heat & Mass Transfer Conference. pp. 1-6. From: 8th Australasian Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, 26-29 July 2005, Perth, WA, Australia.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, Steven
(2005)
*Scaling analysis and simulation of natural convection cooling of fluid with Pr < 1 in a rectangular container.*
In: Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Heat & Mass Transfer Conference. pp. 1-4. From: 8th Australasian Heat & Mass Transfer Conference, 26-29 July 2005, Perth, WA, Australia.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, SW
(2005)
*Scaling laws for unsteady natural convection cooling of fluid with Prandtl number less than one in a vertical cylinder.*
Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 72 (1). 016306.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2004)
*Scaling analysis and direct simulation of unsteady natural convection cooling of fluid with Pr < 1 in a vertical cylinder.*
In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference 2004. pp. 1-4. From: Fifteenth Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference 2004, 13-17 December 2004, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2004)
*Long-term behavior of cooling fluid in a rectangular container.*
Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 69 (5). 056315-1.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2004)
*Direct simulation of fountains with intermediate Froude and Reynolds numbers.*
ANZIAM Journal, 45. pp. 66-77.

Lin, W., and Armfield, S.W.
(2003)
*The Reynolds and Prandtl number dependence of weak fountains.*
Computational Mechanics, 31 (5). pp. 379-389.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S.W.
(2002)
*Weak fountains in a stratified fluid.*
Physical Review E (Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics), 66 (6). 066308-1.

Patterson, John C., Graham, Tasman, Schopf, Wolfgang, and Armfield, S.W.
(2002)
*Boundary layer development on a semi infinite, suddenly heated vertical plate.*
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 453. pp. 39-55.

Morgan, P.L., Armfield, S.W., Lin, Wenxian, and Patterson, J.C.
(2002)
*Direct numerical simulation of boundary layer start-up on semi-infinite vertical flat plates for buoyant and non-buoyant flows.*
Computational Fluid Dynamics Journal, 11 (1). pp. 18-26.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, SW
(2001)
*Natural convection cooling of rectangular and cylindrical containers.*
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 22. pp. 72-81.

Lin, Wenxian, and Armfield, S. W.
(2000)
*Direct simulation of weak axisymmetric fountains in a homogeneous fluid.*
Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 403. pp. 67-88.

Armfield, S.W., and Patterson, J.C.
(2000)
*Start-up flow on a vertical semi-infinite heated plate.*
In: Proceedings of the 7th Heath and Mass Transfer Conference. pp. 37-43. From: 7th Australasian Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, 3-6 July 2000, Townsville, QLD, Australia.