Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

Sun, Eun Jin, Wankell, Miriam, Palamuthusingam, Pranavan, McFarlane, Craig, and Hebbard, Lionel (2021) Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. Biomedicines, 9 (11). 1639.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (771kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Despite advances in the treatment of cancers through surgical procedures and new pharmaceuticals, the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains challenging as reflected by low survival rates. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is an important signaling mechanism that regulates the cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Importantly, deregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway leading to activation is common in HCC and is hence the subject of intense investigation and the focus of current therapeutics. In this review article, we consider the role of this pathway in the pathogenesis of HCC, focusing on its downstream effectors such as glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), forkhead box O protein (FOXO), murine double minute 2 (MDM2), p53, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and the cellular processes of lipogenesis and autophagy. In addition, we provide an update on the current ongoing clinical development of agents targeting this pathway for HCC treatments.

Item ID: 70947
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2227-9059
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; HCC; Akt; mTOR; PI3K; clinical trials
Copyright Information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2021 04:30
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310111 Signal transduction @ 50%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3211 Oncology and carcinogenesis > 321101 Cancer cell biology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280103 Expanding knowledge in the biomedical and clinical sciences @ 50%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 50%
Downloads: Total: 668
Last 12 Months: 57
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page