A Novel Pathogenic Avipoxvirus Infecting Vulnerable Cook’s Petrel (Pterodroma cookii) in Australia Demonstrates a High Genomic and Evolutionary Proximity with South African Avipoxviruses

Sarker, Subir, and Raidal, Shane R. (2023) A Novel Pathogenic Avipoxvirus Infecting Vulnerable Cook’s Petrel (Pterodroma cookii) in Australia Demonstrates a High Genomic and Evolutionary Proximity with South African Avipoxviruses. Microbiology Spectrum, 11 (2).

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Abstract

Avipoxviruses are assumed to be restricted to avian hosts and are considered to be important viral pathogens that may impact the conservation of many vulnerable or endangered birds. Recent reports of avipoxvirus-like viruses from reptiles suggest that cross-species transmission may be possible within birds and other species. Most of the avipoxviruses in wild and sea birds remain uncharacterized, and their genetic variability is unclear. Here, cutaneous pox lesions were used to recover a novel, full-length Cook’s petrelpox virus (CPPV) genome from a vulnerable Cook’s petrel (Pterodroma cookii), and this was followed by the detection of immature virions using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CPPV genome was 314,065 bp in length and contained 357 predicted open-reading frames (ORFs). While 323 of the ORFs of the CPPV genome had the greatest similarity with the gene products of other avipoxviruses, a further 34 ORFs were novel. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the CPPV was most closely related to other avipoxviruses that were isolated mostly from South African bird species and demonstrated the highest sequence similarity with a recently isolated flamingopox virus (88.9%) in South Africa. Considering the sequence similarity observed between CPPV and other avipoxviruses, TEM evidence of poxvirus particles, and phylogenetic position, this study concluded that CPPV is a distinct candidate of avipoxviruses.

Item ID: 79795
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2165-0497
Keywords: Avipoxvirus, next-generation sequencing, petrel, phylogenetics, transmission electron microscopy, virus evolution
Copyright Information: Copyright © 2023 Sarker and Raidal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
Funders: Australian Research Council (ARC)
Projects and Grants: ARC DE200100367
Date Deposited: 16 Aug 2023 23:58
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300914 Veterinary virology @ 40%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3105 Genetics > 310509 Genomics @ 30%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3107 Microbiology > 310706 Virology @ 30%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 100%
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