The higher education expectation scale: development and testing

Morshidi, Mohammad Izzat, Chew, Peter, and Suarez, Lidia (2023) The higher education expectation scale: development and testing. Higher Education Research & Development. (In Press)

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Excessive educational expectations are risk factors for poor mental health among students in higher education. However, the literature on educational expectations has largely focused on primary and secondary students with paucity among tertiary students. This study describes the development of a multidimensional scale measuring perceived educational expectations by tertiary students. Results show that students perceived expectations from four distinct sources: self, parents, educators/institutions, and culture. The final 28-item HEES multidimensional scale provides an opportunity in higher education literature to examine the weight of expectations and their impact on tertiary students’ academic performance and well-being.

Item ID: 79303
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1469-8366
Keywords: Educational expectations; scale development; higher education expectation scale
Copyright Information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License(, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent
Date Deposited: 11 Jul 2023 23:04
FoR Codes: 52 PSYCHOLOGY > 5201 Applied and developmental psychology > 520108 Testing, assessment and psychometrics @ 100%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280121 Expanding knowledge in psychology @ 100%
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