Dietary supplementation of astaxanthin modulates skin color and liver antioxidant status of giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus)

Fernando, Fernando, Candebat, Caroline L., Strugnell, Jan M., Andreakis, Nikolaos, and Nankervis, Leo (2022) Dietary supplementation of astaxanthin modulates skin color and liver antioxidant status of giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus). Aquaculture Reports, 26. 101266.

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Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is an emerging aquaculture species in Southeast Asia and Australia with limited knowledge of its nutrient requirements and effects of supplements on its physiology. The present study investigated the effects of astaxanthin, vitamin E, and combinations on growth performance, body coloration, and the antioxidant status of juvenile giant grouper. Nine isonitrogenous (crude protein = 65 % ± 0.7 %) and isolipidic (crude lipid = 10 % ± 0.3 %) diets were formulated using a 3 × 3 factorial design, including three levels astaxanthin (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) and vitamin E (0, 250, and 500 mg/kg), respectively. Each of the nine diets was fed to triplicate groups of 15 giant grouper (18.04 ± 0.92 g) for 30 days. Giant grouper fed the different diets exhibited no significant differences (p > 0.05) in specific growth rate (4.87 %/day - 5.21 %/day). However, dietary astaxanthin supplementation significantly enhanced the redness (a*), yellowness (b*b*), chroma, and hue values of the fin, regardless of the dose supplemented. Giant grouper fed astaxanthin at 75 and 150 mg/kg diet were more yellow and had three times higher b* values than fish fed non-supplemented diets. Further, total antioxidant capacity (TAC; mmol Trolox equivalent) in liver tissues was significantly increased in fish fed any of the astaxanthin-supplemented diets (p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, TAC levels were not affected by vitamin E supple-mentation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by astaxanthin or vitamin E. Findings from this study will contribute toward a better understanding of the dietary effects of antioxidant and pigment in juvenile giant grouper. We present that dietary treatment can modulate giant grouper pigmentation and may be used in the live fish trade. Further, this study contributes to narrowing the knowledge gap in formulating appropriate diets for giant grouper, which to date is fed diets formulated for other species.

Item ID: 75697
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2352-5134
Keywords: Carophyll pink, astaxanthin, carotenoid, feed supplement, grouper, tocopherol, vitamin E, sparing effects
Copyright Information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Date Deposited: 15 Aug 2022 03:11
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3005 Fisheries sciences > 300501 Aquaculture @ 50%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3003 Animal production > 300303 Animal nutrition @ 50%
SEO Codes: 10 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 1002 Fisheries - aquaculture > 100202 Aquaculture fin fish (excl. tuna) @ 100%
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