Superantigen recognition and interactions: functions, mechanisms and applications

Deacy, Anthony M., Gan, Samuel Ken-En, and Derrick, Jeremy P. (2021) Superantigen recognition and interactions: functions, mechanisms and applications. Frontiers in Immunology, 12. 731845. pp. 3765-6781.

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Abstract

Superantigens are unconventional antigens which recognise immune receptors outside their usual recognition sites e.g. complementary determining regions (CDRs), to elicit a response within the target cell. T-cell superantigens crosslink T-cell receptors and MHC Class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, leading to lymphocyte recruitment, induction of cytokine storms and T-cell anergy or apoptosis among many other effects. B-cell superantigens, on the other hand, bind immunoglobulins on B-cells, affecting opsonisation, IgG-mediated phagocytosis, and driving apoptosis. Here, through a review of the structural basis for recognition of immune receptors by superantigens, we show that their binding interfaces share specific physicochemical characteristics when compared with other protein-protein interaction complexes. Given that antibody-binding superantigens have been exploited extensively in industrial antibody purification, these observations could facilitate further protein engineering to optimize the use of superantigens in this and other areas of biotechnology.

Item ID: 71018
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1664-3224
Keywords: superantigen, T-cell, B-cell, cytokine storm, interface, antibody purification
Copyright Information: Copyright © 2021 Deacy, Gan and Derrick. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2021 03:45
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3107 Microbiology > 310702 Infectious agents @ 40%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320402 Applied immunology (incl. antibody engineering, xenotransplantation and t-cell therapies) @ 50%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3102 Bioinformatics and computational biology > 310208 Translational and applied bioinformatics @ 10%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280103 Expanding knowledge in the biomedical and clinical sciences @ 50%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 50%
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