Natural, in ovo, vertical transmission of the RNA viruses, Chequa iflavirus and Athtab bunyavirus, but not Cherax reovirus in redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus)

Jaroenram, Wansadaj, Owens, Leigh, Hayakijkosol, Orachun, and Elliman, Jennifer (2021) Natural, in ovo, vertical transmission of the RNA viruses, Chequa iflavirus and Athtab bunyavirus, but not Cherax reovirus in redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus). Aquaculture, 534. 736285.

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Abstract

The first molecular evidence for natural, in ovo, vertical transmission of Chequa iflavirus and Athtab bunyavirus from farmed female redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) cultured in northern Queensland, Australia is presented. Cherax reovirus was also examined, but evidence that this is spread via in ovo vertically transmission is very limited. Amongst 57 broodstock-derived pools of fertilized eggs, 38 (66.7%), 34 (59.6%) and 6 (10.5%) were positive for Chequa iflavirus, Athtab bunyavirus and Cherax reovirus respectively with the respective average loads of 6.56 × 104, 2.33 × 103 and 1.03 × 101 copies/μl of tested samples. Grouping samples by farm origins, all viruses in most farms were statistically similar (P > 0.05) for viral loads. As two viruses are transovarial transmitted, surface sterilizing practices would be ineffective and the load remains high as is seen in Chequa iflavirus and Athtab bunyavirus, but extremely low on surface-treated eggs as appears with Cherax reovirus. Our evidence, plus the literature, supports the general rule that if the virus is in the gut, most of the vertical transmission is faecal /oral and can be drastically reduced by efficient egg surface sterilization. If the virus is spread in ovo, then RT-qPCR testing coupled with therapeutic methods and selection of resistant crayfish families or detection of viral negative, geographically isolated populations of crayfish is the way forward for the removal of Chequa iflavirus and Athtab bunyavirus.

Item ID: 65789
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-5622
Keywords: Vertical transmission, Chequa iflavirus, Athtab bunyavirus, Cherax reovirus, Redclaw crayfish, Australian Cherax quadricarinatus, In ovo
Copyright Information: © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Funders: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC)
Projects and Grants: RIRDC Project PRJ-009388
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2021 23:10
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3107 Microbiology > 310706 Virology @ 50%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3005 Fisheries sciences > 300501 Aquaculture @ 50%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 80%
83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8301 Fisheries - Aquaculture > 830101 Aquaculture Crustaceans (excl. Rock Lobster and Prawns) @ 20%
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