Plastid genome structure and phylogenomics of Nymphaeales: conserved gene order and new insights into relationships

Gruenstaeudl, Michael, Nauheimer, Lars, and Borsch, Thomas (2017) Plastid genome structure and phylogenomics of Nymphaeales: conserved gene order and new insights into relationships. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 303 (9). pp. 1251-1270.

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Abstract

The plastid genomes of early-diverging angiosperms were among the first land plant plastomes investigated. Despite their importance to understanding angiosperm evolution, no investigation has so far compared gene content or gene synteny of these plastid genomes with a focus on the Nymphaeales. Here, we report an evaluation and comparison of gene content, gene synteny and inverted repeat length for a set of 15 plastid genomes of early-diverging angiosperms. Seven plastid genomes of the Nymphaeales were newly sequenced for this investigation. We compare gene order and inverted repeat (IR) length across all genomes, review the gene annotations of previously published genomes, generate a multi-gene alignment of 77 plastid-encoded genes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of the taxa under study. Our results show that gene content and synteny are highly conserved across early-diverging angiosperms: All species analyzed display complete gene synteny when accounting for expansions and contractions of the IRs. This conservation was initially obscured by ambiguous and potentially incorrect gene annotations in previously published genomes. We also report the presence of intact open reading frames across all taxa analyzed. The multi-gene phylogeny displays maximum support for the families Cabombaceae and Hydatellaceae, but no support for a clade of all Nymphaeaceae. It further indicates that the genus Victoria is embedded within Nymphaea. Plastid genomes of Trithuria were found to deviate by numerous substitutions and length changes in the IRs. Phylogenetic analyses further indicate that a previously published plastome named Nymphaea mexicana falls into a clade of N. odorata and should be re-evaluated.

Item ID: 52069
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1615-6110
Keywords: early-diverging angiosperms, gene annotations, gene order, inverted repeats, Nymphaeales, plastid genome
Funders: Freie Universität Berlin
Date Deposited: 14 Feb 2018 04:09
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0603 Evolutionary Biology > 060310 Plant Systematics and Taxonomy @ 50%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060408 Genomics @ 30%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060407 Genome Structure and Regulation @ 20%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 100%
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