Elevated temperature and carbon dioxide levels alter growth rates and shell composition in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa

Armstrong, Eric J., Watson, Sue Ann, Stillman, Jonathon H., and Calosi, Piero (2022) Elevated temperature and carbon dioxide levels alter growth rates and shell composition in the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa. Scientific Reports, 12. 11034.

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Abstract

Giant clams produce massive calcified shells with important biological (e.g., defensive) and ecological (e.g., habitat-forming) properties. Whereas elevated seawater temperature is known to alter giant clam shell structure, no study has examined the effects of a simultaneous increase in seawater temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) on shell mineralogical composition in these species. We investigated the effects of 60-days exposure to end-of-the-century projections for seawater temperature (+ 3 °C) and pCO2 (+ 500 µatm) on growth, mineralogy, and organic content of shells and scutes in juvenile Tridacna squamosa giant clams. Elevated temperature had no effect on growth rates or organic content, but did increase shell [24Mg]/[40Ca] as well as [40Ca] in newly-formed scutes. Elevated pCO2 increased shell growth and whole animal mass gain. In addition, we report the first evidence of an effect of elevated pCO2 on element/Ca ratios in giant clam shells, with significantly increased [137Ba]/[40Ca] in newly-formed shells. Simultaneous exposure to both drivers greatly increased inter-individual variation in mineral concentrations and resulted in reduced shell N-content which may signal the onset of physiological stress. Overall, our results indicate a greater influence of pCO2 on shell mineralogy in giant clams than previously recognized.

Item ID: 76364
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2045-2322
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2023 01:56
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3103 Ecology > 310305 Marine and estuarine ecology (incl. marine ichthyology) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1805 Marine systems and management > 180504 Marine biodiversity @ 50%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 50%
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