Vertical circulation due to deep-water renewal and phytoplankton blooms in the tropical fjord of Ambon Bay, eastern Indonesia

Salamena, Gerry Giliant, Whinney, James C., and Heron, Scott F. (2022) Vertical circulation due to deep-water renewal and phytoplankton blooms in the tropical fjord of Ambon Bay, eastern Indonesia. Journal of Marine Systems, 234. 103776.

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This study provides the first observational evidence on the role of deep-water renewal in triggering phytoplankton blooms in a rare shallow-silled tropical fjord (Ambon Bay). Seasonal variation in the tidal-induced deep-water intrusions into inner Ambon Bay (IAB, the fjord basin) upwardly displaces water from the IAB deep layer towards the surface. The budget method was employed to quantify vertical mixing in the deep layer of IAB (below sill depth) post-intrusions (stagnant periods). Within a spring-neap sequence (~ 2 weeks), deep-water intrusion pulses in IAB were observed to be more frequent in the easterly monsoon (July, eight pulses) than the transitional season (October, three pulses). These intrusion pulses uplifted the resident deep waters of IAB with rates of 2.4 - 4.0 m/day in the easterly monsoon and 1.5 - 1.8 m/day in the transitional season. Depth-averaged vertical diffusion coefficient (Kv) in the deep layer of IAB slightly varied between easterly monsoon (3.3 × 10-4 m2/s) and transitional season (3.7 × 10-4 m2/s). The parameterization of the vertical mixing-stratification relationship (Kv ∝ [N2]-β) in the IAB deep layer was found to be larger in easterly monsoon (β = 1.104) than in transitional season (β = 0.694). Chlorophyll-a concentration in the water column of IAB increased during uplifting events with phytoplankton bloom conditions (> 5 mg/m3) found only in the easterly monsoon. The described uplift mechanism as a driver of phytoplankton blooms should be included in future analyses of water quality for IAB.

Item ID: 75758
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 0924-7963
Keywords: Uplifting process in a shallow-silled tropical fjord, Deep-water renewal, Vertical mixing, Phytoplankton blooms, The tropical fjord of Ambon Bay
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Copyright Information: © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2022 07:39
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3103 Ecology > 310305 Marine and estuarine ecology (incl. marine ichthyology) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1805 Marine systems and management > 180506 Oceanic processes (excl. in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean) @ 50%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 50%
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