Nature-based tourism in protected areas: a systematic review of socio-economic benefits and costs to local people

Thapa, Kamal, King, David, Banhalmi-Zakar, Zsuzsa, and Diedrich, Amy (2022) Nature-based tourism in protected areas: a systematic review of socio-economic benefits and costs to local people. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. (In Press)

[img] PDF (Accepted Publisher Version) - Accepted Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

View at Publisher Website:


Nature-based tourism, which includes visits to protected areas, is a growing trend. This may include consumptive and non-consumptive activities, with nature-based tourists being motivated to experience local culture and nature. Thus, tourism can contribute economically and socially to communities associated with protected areas, with the outcomes being both benefits and costs to local people. We carried out a systematic literature review to document and characterise the outcomes of nature-based tourism for people living in and around protected areas (terrestrial and inland waters). We evaluated 89 papers published from 1996 to 2020, most of which were conducted in low- and middle-income countries. The main benefits were employment, business opportunities and income, and the main costs were acculturation and abandonment of traditional lifestyle/practices, price inflation and conflict/crime. While most benefits were economic, most costs were socio-cultural. We found that benefits were most frequently experienced individually and costs experienced mostly at the collective or community levels. Inconsistencies in reporting of impacts suggests that future research should take a more consistent and systematic approach to evaluating benefits and costs of nature-based tourism from both the demographic and geographic perspectives, be more inclusive, and pay equal attention to objective and subjective measures of costs and benefits.

Item ID: 74349
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1745-2627
Keywords: Local people, nature-based tourism, protected areas, socio-economic benefit, socio-economic cost, systematic literature review
Copyright Information: © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Date Deposited: 01 Jun 2022 08:15
FoR Codes: 35 COMMERCE, MANAGEMENT, TOURISM AND SERVICES > 3508 Tourism > 350801 Impacts of tourism @ 50%
41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410401 Conservation and biodiversity @ 50%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1899 Other environmental management > 189999 Other environmental management not elsewhere classified @ 50%
11 COMMERCIAL SERVICES AND TOURISM > 1199 Other commercial services and tourism > 119999 Other commercial services and tourism not elsewhere classified @ 50%
Downloads: Total: 1
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page