Are interactions between epicardial adipose tissue, cardiac fibroblasts and cardiac myocytes instrumental in atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation?

Krishnan, Anirudh, Chilton, Emily, Raman, Jaishankar, Saxena, Pankaj, McFarlane, Craig, Trollope, Alexandra F., Kinobe, Robert, and Chilton, Lisa (2021) Are interactions between epicardial adipose tissue, cardiac fibroblasts and cardiac myocytes instrumental in atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation? Cells, 10 (9). 2501.

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Abstract

Atrial fibrillation is very common among the elderly and/or obese. While myocardial fibrosis is associated with atrial fibrillation, the exact mechanisms within atrial myocytes and surrounding non-myocytes are not fully understood. This review considers the potential roles of myocardial fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in fibrosis and modulating myocyte electrophysiology through electrotonic interactions. Coupling with (myo)fibroblasts in vitro and in silico prolonged myocyte action potential duration and caused resting depolarization; an optogenetic study has verified in vivo that fibroblasts depolarized when coupled myocytes produced action potentials. This review also introduces another non-myocyte which may modulate both myocardial (myo)fibroblasts and myocytes: epicardial adipose tissue. Epicardial adipocytes are in intimate contact with myocytes and (myo)fibroblasts and may infiltrate the myocardium. Adipocytes secrete numerous adipokines which modulate (myo)fibroblast and myocyte physiology. These adipokines are protective in healthy hearts, preventing inflammation and fibrosis. However, adipokines secreted from adipocytes may switch to pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic, associated with reactive oxygen species generation. Pro-fibrotic adipokines stimulate myofibroblast differentiation, causing pronounced fibrosis in the epicardial adipose tissue and the myocardium. Adipose tissue also influences myocyte electrophysiology, via the adipokines and/or through electrotonic interactions. Deeper understanding of the interactions between myocytes and non-myocytes is important to understand and manage atrial fibrillation.

Item ID: 69416
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2073-4409
Keywords: myofibroblast; adipokine; electrotonic coupling; current sink
Copyright Information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2021 00:19
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310111 Signal transduction @ 30%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310105 Cellular interactions (incl. adhesion, matrix, cell wall) @ 40%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 30%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 40%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280103 Expanding knowledge in the biomedical and clinical sciences @ 30%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280112 Expanding knowledge in the health sciences @ 30%
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