The sulfur amino acid requirements of juvenile Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

Candebat, Caroline L., Booth, Mark A., and Pirozzi, Igor (2021) The sulfur amino acid requirements of juvenile Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi). Aquaculture, 534. 736234.

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Abstract

The dietary methionine and cysteine requirements of Yellowtail Kingfish (YTK) are unknown. Methionine, an essential sulfur-containing amino acid, acts as a sulfur and methyl donor for key metabolites, such as cysteine and taurine. Cysteine, a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, can spare significant amounts of methionine in the total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement. Both methionine and cysteine are an integral part of YTK aquafeeds, in which methionine supplementation levels are based on the requirements of the closely related Japanese Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) at approximately 11.1 g kg−1 diet. However, recent research has demonstrated better growth and feed efficiency in YTK fed diets containing more than 11 g methionine kg−1, although the precise methionine requirement and potential interactions with cysteine remain unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to (1) elucidate the methionine requirement of YTK at low and high dietary cysteine contents and to (2) quantify cysteine’s sparing capacity for methionine in the TSAA requirement. These requirements and relationships were established by feeding ten isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, made from common feed ingredients, to triplicate groups of 12 fish (initial 52.6 ± 1.0 g fish−1) over 54 days. The orthogonal design consisted of two levels of dietary cysteine (5.6 & 13.9 g kg−1), crossed with five levels of dietary methionine, increasing from 7.9 to 25.2 g kg−1. Non-linear regression analysis indicated an average digestible TSAA requirement of 0.70 g kgBW−1 d−1 (0.56 g Met kgBW−1 d−1 & 0.14 g Cys kgBW−1 d−1) based on feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, and protein retention efficiency. This approximates to an average dietary sulfur amino acid specification of 24.5 g kg−1 (18.9 g Met kg−1 & 5.6 g Cys kg−1). Cysteine spared 40.4–49.2% of methionine in the TSAA requirement on an equimolar sulfur basis. Sub- and supra-optimal levels of dietary methionine and cysteine induced inferior growth and feed efficiency. Additionally, fish fed the diet lowest in dietary methionine and cysteine indicated early stages of cataract. This study provides quantitative data on the sulfur amino acid requirements of juvenile YTK and will facilitate the formulation of better diets for this species.

Item ID: 69128
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-5622
Keywords: Seriola lalandi; Methionine; Cysteine; Nutrition; Digestibility
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Copyright Information: © 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Funders: Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources (AG), Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC), South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI), Clean Seas Seafood, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI), Huon Aquaculture, James Cook University (JCU)
Projects and Grants: AG Rural R&D for Profit Program (RnD4Profit-14-01-027), JCU Postgraduate Research Scholarship
Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2021 02:42
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3003 Animal production > 300303 Animal nutrition @ 50%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3005 Fisheries sciences > 300501 Aquaculture @ 30%
30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300902 Veterinary anatomy and physiology @ 20%
SEO Codes: 10 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 1002 Fisheries - aquaculture > 100202 Aquaculture fin fish (excl. tuna) @ 100%
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