The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex

Grasby, Katrina, Jahanshad, Neda, Painter, Jodie N., Colodro-Conde, Lucía, Bralten, Janita, Hibar, Derrek P., Lind, Penelope A., Pizzagalli, Fabrizio, Ching, Christopher R. K., McMahon, Mary Agnes B., Shatokhina, Natalia, Zsembik, Leo C. P., Thomopoulos, Sophia I., Zhu, Alyssa H., Strike, Lachlan T., Agartz, Ingrid, Alhusaini, Saud, Almeida, Marcio A. A., Alnæs, Dag, Amlien, Inge K., Andersson, Micael, Ard, Tyler, Armstrong, Nicola J., Ashley-Koch, Allison, Atkins, Joshua R., Bernard, Manon, Brouwer, Rachel M., Buimer, Elizabeth E. L., Bülow, Robin, Bürger, Christian, Cannon, Dara M., Chakravarty, Mallar, Chen, Qiang, Cheung, Joshua W., Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste, Dale, Anders M., Dalvie, Shareefa, de Araujo, Tânia K., de Zubicaray, Greig I., de Zwarte, Sonja M. C., den Braber, Anouk, Doan, Nhat Trung, Dohm, Katharina, Ehrlich, Stefan, Engelbrecht, Hannah-Ruth, Erk, Susanne, Fan, Chun Chieh, Fedko, Iryna O., Foley, Sonya F., Ford, Judith M., Fukunaga, Masaki, Garrett, Melanie E., Ge, Tian, Giddaluru, Sudheer, Goldman, Aaron L., Green, Melissa J., Groenewold, Nynke A., Grotegerd, Dominik, Gurholt, Tiril P., Gutman, Boris A., Hansell, Narelle K., Harris, Mathew A., Harrison, Marc B., Haswell, Courtney C., Hauser, Michael, Herms, Stefan, Heslenfeld, Dirk J., Ho, New Fei, Hoehn, David, Hoffmann, Per, Holleran, Laurena, Hoogman, Martine, Hottenga, Jouke-Jan, Ikeda, Masashi, Janowitz, Deborah, Jansen, Iris E., Jia, Tianye, Jockwitz, Christiane, Kanai, Ryota, Karama, Sherif, Kasperaviciute, Dalia, Kaufmann, Tobias, Kelly, Sinead, Kikuchi, Masataka, Klein, Marieke, Knapp, Michael, Knodt, Annchen R., Krämer, Bernd, Lam, Max, Lancaster, Thomas M., Lee, Phil H., Lett, Tristram A., Lewis, Lindsay B., Lopes-Cendes, Iscia, Luciano, Michelle, Macciardi, Fabio, Marquand, Andre F., Mathias, Samuel R., Melzer, Tracy R., Milaneschi, Yuri, Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin, Moreira, Jose C. V., Mühleisen, Thomas W., Müller-Myhsok, Bertram, Najt, Pablo, Nakahara, Soichiro, Nho, Kwangsik, Olde Loohuis, Loes M., Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos, Pearson, John F., Pitcher, Toni L., Pütz, Benno, Quidé, Yann, Ragothaman, Anjanibhargavi, Rashid, Faisal M., Reay, William R., Redlich, Ronny, Reinbold, Céline S., Repple, Jonathan, Richard, Geneviève, Riedel, Brandalyn C., Risacher, Shannon L., Rocha, Cristiane S., Mota, Nina Roth, Salminen, Lauren, Saremi, Arvin, Saykin, Andrew J., Schlag, Fenja, Schmaal, Lianne, Schofield, Peter R., Secolin, Rodrigo, Shapland, Chin Yang, Shen, Li, Shin, Jean, Shumskaya, Elena, Sønderby, Ida E., Sprooten, Emma, Tansey, Katherine E., Teumer, Alexander, Thalamuthu, Anbupalam, Tordesillas-Gutiérrez, Diana, Turner, Jessica A., Uhlmann, Anne, Vallerga, Costanza Ludovica, van der Meer, Dennis, van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J., van Eijk, Liza, van Erp, Theo G. M., van Haren, Neeltje E. M., van Rooij, Daan, van Tol, Marie-José, Veldink, Jan H., Verhoef, Ellen, Walton, Esther, Wang, Mingyuan, Wang, Yunpeng, Wardlaw, Joanna M., Wen, Wei, Westlye, Lars T., Whelan, Christopher D., Witt, Stephanie H., Wittfeld, Katharina, Wolf, Christiane, Wolfers, Thomas, Wu, Jing Qin, Yasuda, Clarissa L., Zaremba, Dario, Zhang, Zuo, Zwiers, Marcel P., Artiges, Eric, Assareh, Amelia A., Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa, Belger, Aysenil, Brandt, Christine L., Brown, Gregory G., Cichon, Sven, Curran, Joanne E., Davies, Gareth E., Degenhardt, Franziska, Dennis, Michelle F., Dietsche, Bruno, Djurovic, Srdjan, Doherty, Colin P., Espiritu, Ryan, Garijo, Daniel, Gil, Yolanda, Gowland, Penny A., Green, Robert C., Häusler, Alexander N., Heindel, Walter, Ho, Beng-Choon, Hoffmann, Wolfgang U., Holsboer, Florian, Homuth, Georg, Hosten, Norbert, Jack, Clifford R., Jang, MiHyun, Jansen, Andreas, Kimbrel, Nathan A., Kolskår, Knut, Koops, Sanne, Krug, Axel, Lim, Kelvin O., Luykx, Jurjen J., Mathalon, Daniel H., Mather, Karen A., Mattay, Venkata S., Matthews, Sarah, Mayoral Van Son, Jaqueline, McEwen, Sarah C., Melle, Ingrid, Morris, Derek W., Mueller, Bryon A., Nauck, Matthias, Nordvik, Jan E., Nöthen, Markus M., O’Leary, Daniel S., Opel, Nils, Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère, Pike, G. Bruce, Preda, Adrian, Quinlan, Erin B., Rasser, Paul E., Ratnakar, Varun, Reppermund, Simone, Steen, Vidar M., Tooney, Paul A., Torres, Fábio R., Veltman, Dick J., Voyvodic, James T., Whelan, Robert, White, Tonya, Yamamori, Hidenaga, Adams, Hieab H. H., Bis, Joshua C., Debette, Stephanie, Decarli, Charles, Fornage, Myriam, Gudnason, Vilmundur, Hofer, Edith, Ikram, M. Arfan, Launer, Lenore, Longstreth, W. T., Lopez, Oscar L., Mazoyer, Bernard, Mosley, Thomas H., Roshchupkin, Gennady V., Satizabal, Claudia L., Schmidt, Reinhold, Seshadri, Sudha, Yang, Qiong, Alvim, Marina K. M., Ames, David, Anderson, Tim J., Andreassen, Ole A., Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro, Bastin, Mark E., Baune, Bernhard T., Beckham, Jean C., Blangero, John, Boomsma, Dorret I., Brodaty, Henry, Brunner, Han G., Buckner, Randy L., Buitelaar, Jan K., Bustillo, Juan R., Cahn, Wiepke, Cairns, Murray J., Calhoun, Vince, Carr, Vaughan J., Caseras, Xavier, Caspers, Svenja, Cavalleri, Gianpiero L., Cendes, Fernando, Corvin, Aiden, Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto, Dalrymple-Alford, John C., Dannlowski, Udo, de Geus, Eco J. C., Deary, Ian J., Delanty, Norman, Depondt, Chantal, Desrivières, Sylvane, Donohoe, Gary, Espeseth, Thomas, Fernández, Guillén, Fisher, Simon E., Flor, Herta, Forstner, Andreas J., Francks, Clyde, Franke, Barbara, Glahn, David C., Gollub, Randy L., Grabe, Hans J., Gruber, Oliver, Håberg, Asta K., Hariri, Ahmad R., Hartman, Catharina A., Hashimoto, Ryota, Heinz, Andreas, Henskens, Frans A., Hillegers, Manon H. J., Hoekstra, Pieter J., Holmes, Avram J., Hong, L. Elliot, Hopkins, William D., Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E., Jernigan, Terry L., Jönsson, Erik G., Kahn, René S., Kennedy, Martin A., Kircher, Tilo T. J., Kochunov, Peter, Kwok, John B. J., Le Hellard, Stephanie, Loughland, Carmel M., Martin, Nicholas G., Martinot, Jean-Luc, McDonald, Colm, McMahon, Katie L., Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas, Michie, Patricia T., Morey, Rajendra A., Mowry, Bryan, Nyberg, Lars, Oosterlaan, Jaap, Ophoff, Roel A., Pantelis, Christos, Paus, Tomas, Pausova, Zdenka, Penninx, Brenda W. J. H., Polderman, Tinca J. C., Posthuma, Danielle, Rietschel, Marcella, Roffman, Joshua L., Rowland, Laura M., Sachdev, Perminder S., Sämann, Philipp G., Schall, Ulrich, Schumann, Gunter, Scott, Rodney J., Sim, Kang, Sisodiya, Sanjay M., Smoller, Jordan W., Sommer, Iris E., St Pourcain, Beate, Stein, Dan J., Toga, Arthur W., Trollor, Julian N., Van der Wee, Nic J. A., van ’t Ent, Dennis, Völzke, Henry, Walter, Henrik, Weber, Bernd, Weinberger, Daniel R., Wright, Margaret J., Zhou, Juan, Stein, Jason L., Thompson, Paul M., and Medland, Sarah E. (2020) The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex. Science, 367 (6484). eaay6690.

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Abstract

The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Item ID: 67586
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1095-9203
Copyright Information: Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
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This article is freely available via the publisher's website.

Date Deposited: 10 May 2021 05:32
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3209 Neurosciences > 320903 Central nervous system @ 100%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280103 Expanding knowledge in the biomedical and clinical sciences @ 100%
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