A biogeographic framework of octopod species diversification: the role of the Isthmus of Panama

Lima, Francoise D., Strugnell, Jan M., Leite, Tatiana S., and Lima, Sergio M.Q. (2020) A biogeographic framework of octopod species diversification: the role of the Isthmus of Panama. PeerJ, 8. e8691.

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Abstract

The uplift of the Isthmus of Panama (IP) created a land bridge between Central and South America and caused the separation of the Western Atlantic and Eastern Pacific oceans, resulting in profound changes in the environmental and oceanographic conditions. To evaluate how these changes have influenced speciation processes in octopods, fragments of two mitochondrial (Cytochrome oxidase subunit I, COI and 16S rDNA) and two nuclear (Rhodopsin and Elongation Factor-1 alpha, EF-1 alpha) genes were amplified from samples from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. One biogeographical and four fossil calibration priors were used within a relaxed Bayesian phylogenetic analysis framework to estimate divergence times among dadogenic events. Reconstruction of the ancestral states in phylogenies was used to infer historical biogeography of the lineages and species dispersal routes. The results revealed three well-supported Glades of transisthmian octopus sister species pair/complex (TSSP/TSSC) and two additional clades showing a low probability of species diversification, having been influenced by the IP. Divergence times estimated in the present study revealed that octopod TSSP/TSSC from the Atlantic and Pacific diverged between the Middle Miocene and Early Pliocene (mean range = 5-18 Ma). Given that oceanographic changes caused by the uplift of the IP were so strong as to affect the global climate, we suggest that octopod TSSP/TSSC diverged because of these physical and environmental barriers, even before the complete uplift of the IP 3 Ma, proposed by the Late Pliocene model. The results obtained in this phylogenetic reconstruction also indicate that the octopus species pairs in each ocean share a recent common ancestor from the Pacific Ocean.

Item ID: 62839
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2167-8359
Keywords: Phylogeny, Vicariance, Dispersal, Speciation, Fossil calibration, Octopus, Isthmus of Panama, Evolution
Copyright Information: Copyright 2020 Lima et al. Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0
Funders: Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Science Without Borders, James Cook University
Projects and Grants: CNPq 481492/2013-9, CAPES ProjetoCiências do Mar II- 23038.004807/2014-01
Date Deposited: 15 Apr 2020 07:52
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060411 Population, Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 100%
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