Environmental tipping points for sperm motility, fertilization, and embryonic development in the crown-of-thorns starfish

Caballes, Ciemon Frank, Pratchett, Morgan S., Raymundo, Maia L., and Rivera-Posada, Jairo A. (2017) Environmental tipping points for sperm motility, fertilization, and embryonic development in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Diversity, 9 (1). pp. 1-18.

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Abstract

For broadcast spawning invertebrates such as the crown-of-thorns starfish, early life history stages (from spawning to settlement) may be exposed to a wide range of environmental conditions, and could have a major bearing on reproductive success and population replenishment. Arrested development in response to multiple environmental stressors at the earliest stages can be used to define lower and upper limits for normal development. Here, we compared sperm swimming speeds and proportion of motile sperm and rates of fertilization and early development under a range of environmental variables (temperature: 20–36 oC, salinity: 20–34 psu, and pH: 7.4–8.2) to identify environmental tipping points and thresholds for reproductive success. We also tested the effects of water-soluble compounds, derived from eggs, on sperm activity. Our results demonstrate that gametes, fertilization, and embryonic development are robust to a wide range of temperature, salinity, and pH levels that are outside the range found at the geographical limits of adult distribution and can tolerate environmental conditions that exceed expected anomalies as a result of climate change. Water-soluble compounds derived from eggs also enhanced sperm activity, particularly in environmental conditions where sperm motility was initially limited. These findings suggest that fertilization and embryonic development of crown-of-thorns starfish are tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions, though environmental constraints on recruitment success may occur at later ontogenic stages.

Item ID: 47555
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: cleavage; gastrulation; sperm activity; temperature; salinity; pH; Acanthaster outbreaks
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

ISSN: 1424-2818
Funders: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (CECRS)
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2017 23:02
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 100%
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