Marine protected areas, marine spatial planning and the resilience of marine ecosystems

Craig, Robin Kundis, and Hughes, Terry P. (2014) Marine protected areas, marine spatial planning and the resilience of marine ecosystems. In: Garmestani, Ahjond S., and Allen, Craig R., (eds.) Social-Ecological Resilience and Law. Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 98-141.

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[Extract] At first blush, a concern for improving ocean resilience—or, more properly, the resilience of marine ecosystems—might seem misdirected. Oceans cover 71 percent of the Earth's surface and, because of their depth, provide 99 percent of the habitat available for life (Ogden 2001). Biological diversity in the oceans exceeds that on land (Craig 2005). In addition, the seas moderate and buffer the most fundamental physical and chemical processes of the planet, including temperature regulation, the hydrological cycle, and carbon sequestration. Changes in ocean temperature and ocean currents in one part of the world affect weather over a much greater area, as the La Niña/El Niña oscillation, or ENSO, demonstrates through its three-to-seven-year cycles, driven by temperature and current changes in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of South America. Barriers to dispersal are less prevalent in the sea than on land, promoting larval connectivity and migration over very large scales.

Item ID: 38121
Item Type: Book Chapter (Research - B1)
ISBN: 978-0-231-16059-9
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Date Deposited: 28 May 2015 05:22
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050205 Environmental Management @ 40%
05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0501 Ecological Applications > 050101 Ecological Impacts of Climate Change @ 30%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology) @ 30%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9603 Climate and Climate Change > 960305 Ecosystem Adaptation to Climate Change @ 30%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960805 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales @ 40%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960507 Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Marine Environments @ 30%
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