Next-generation transcriptome profiling reveals insights into genetic factors contributing to growth differences and temperature adaptation in Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer)

Newton, James R., Zenger, Kyall R., and Jerry, Dean R. (2013) Next-generation transcriptome profiling reveals insights into genetic factors contributing to growth differences and temperature adaptation in Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Marine Genomics, 11. pp. 45-52.

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Abstract

Identification of genetically-regulated adaptation in fish is a precursor to understanding how populations will respond to future climate induced stressors like temperature. Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) show strong evidence of local adaptation to temperature. However, the phenotypic consequences of this adaptation are unknown and the genetic mechanisms underlying this response are poorly understood. In the current study, two populations of barramundi from temperature extremes of the species Australian distribution were communally reared at cool (22 °C), control (28 °C) and hot (36 °C) water temperatures for 3.5 months. Southern populations of barramundi originating from a cooler environment grew significantly faster at 22 °C than northern populations of warm adapted barramundi. However, no difference in population growth was present at either 28 °C or 36 °C. The underlying transcriptome profile of barramundi was examined via Illumina mRNA deep sequencing to determine the major contributing gene categories giving rise to phenotypic differences in barramundi population growth. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed enrichment in categories relating to the regulation of peptidase activity as well as microtubule, cytoplasmic and cellular metabolic based processes. Further analysis of the GO category "microtubule based process" with associated genes from the "response to stress" category revealed an apparent re-organization of cytoskeletal elements in response to an induced cold stress in northern barramundi reared at 22 °C, when compared with northern barramundi reared at 36 °C. Between southern barramundi and northern barramundi reared at 36 °C, an analysis of the "endopeptidase inhibitor activity" GO category in conjunction with stress genes indicated a suppression of the complement system in southern barramundi along with an increase in the cellular stress response.

The results of the present study show that southern populations of barramundi exhibit underlying molecular adaptation to cooler water temperatures, but still retain a tolerance for warm water temperatures. Furthermore, GO profiling has revealed groups of genes that underlie population differences in temperature tolerance as a means to prioritize the analysis of differential gene expression in studies of local adaptation in the future.

Item ID: 33360
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1874-7787
Keywords: local adaptation; gene expression; temperature tolerance; gene ontology; next-gen sequencing; fish
Date Deposited: 25 May 2014 05:28
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060405 Gene Expression (incl Microarray and other genome-wide approaches) @ 40%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0608 Zoology > 060809 Vertebrate Biology @ 30%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060411 Population, Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics @ 30%
SEO Codes: 83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8301 Fisheries - Aquaculture > 830102 Aquaculture Fin Fish (excl. Tuna) @ 50%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 50%
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