Extraction protocol for nontargeted NMR and LC-MS metabolomics-based analysis of hard coral and their algal symbionts

Gordon, Benjamin R., Leggat, William, and Motti, Cherie A. (2013) Extraction protocol for nontargeted NMR and LC-MS metabolomics-based analysis of hard coral and their algal symbionts. In: Roessner, Ute, and Dias, Daniel Anthony, (eds.) Metabolomics Tools for Natural Product Discovery. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1055 . Humana Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 129-147.

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Metabolomics and in particular, nontargeted metabolomics, has become a popular technique for the study of biological samples as it provides considerable amounts of information on extractable metabolites and is ideal for studying the metabolic response of an organism to stressors in its environment. One such organism, the symbiotic hard coral, presents its own complexity when considering a metabolomics approach in that it forms intricate associations with an array of symbiotic macro- and microbiota. While not discounting the importance of these many associations to the function of the coral holobiont, the coral-Symbiodinium relationship has been the most studied to date and as such, is the primary focus of this extraction protocol. This protocol provides details for the sample collection, extraction, and measurement of hard coral holobiont metabolites using both 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Using this nontargeted metabolomics approach, the holobiont metabolism can be investigated for perturbations resulting from either (1) natural or anthropogenic environmental challenges, (2) the controlled application of stressors, and (3) differences between phenotypes or species. Consequently, this protocol will benefit both environmental and natural products based research of hard coral and their algal symbionts. Every effort has been made to provide the reader with all the details required to perform this protocol, including many of the costly and time consuming "pitfalls" or "traps" that were discovered during its development. As a result, this protocol can be confidently accomplished by those with less experience in the extraction and analysis of symbiotic hard coral, requiring minimal user input whilst ensuring reproducible and reliable results using readily available lab ware and reagents.

Item ID: 26650
Item Type: Book Chapter (Research - B1)
ISBN: 978-1-62703-576-7
ISSN: 1940-6029
Keywords: metabolomics, symbiodinium, coral LC-MS, NMR, extraction
Funders: Australian Research Council (ARC), ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA)
Date Deposited: 28 Oct 2013 00:21
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology > 060101 Analytical Biochemistry @ 80%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0699 Other Biological Sciences > 069999 Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified @ 20%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 50%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 50%
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