Molecular mechanisms of hookworm disease: stealth, virulence, and vaccines

Pearson, Mark S., Tribolet, Leon, Cantacessi, Cinzia, Periago, Maria Victoria, Adela Valerio, Maria, Jariwala, Amar R., Hotez, Peter, Diemert, David, Loukas, Alex, and Bethony, Jeffrey (2012) Molecular mechanisms of hookworm disease: stealth, virulence, and vaccines. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 130 (1). pp. 13-21.

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Abstract

Hookworms produce a vast repertoire of structurally and functionally diverse molecules that mediate their long-term survival and pathogenesis within a human host. Many of these molecules are secreted by the parasite, after which they interact with critical components of host biology, including processes that are key to host survival. The most important of these interactions is the hookworm's interruption of nutrient acquisition by the host through its ingestion and digestion of host blood. This results in iron deficiency and eventually the microcytic hypochromic anemia or iron deficiency anemia that is the clinical hallmark of hookworm infection. Other molecular mechanisms of hookworm infection cause a systematic suppression of the host immune response to both the parasite and to bystander antigens (eg, vaccines or allergens). This is achieved by a series of molecules that assist the parasite in the stealthy evasion of the host immune response. This review will summarize the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms used by hookworms to survive for extended periods in the human host (up to 7 years or longer) and examine the pivotal contributions of these molecular mechanisms to chronic hookworm parasitism and host clinical outcomes.

Item ID: 25504
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1097-6825
Keywords: hookworms, virulence factors, immune modulation, vaccines, proteases, Ancylostoma secreted proteins
Date Deposited: 13 Mar 2013 05:26
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1108 Medical Microbiology > 110803 Medical Parasitology @ 80%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060499 Genetics not elsewhere classified @ 20%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 80%
92 HEALTH > 9299 Other Health > 929999 Health not elsewhere classified @ 20%
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