The complex NOD-like receptor repertoire of the coral Acropora digitifera includes novel domain combinations

Hamada, Mayuko, Shoguchi, Eiichi, Shinzato, Chuya, Kawashima, Takeshi, Miller, David J., and Satoh, Nori (2013) The complex NOD-like receptor repertoire of the coral Acropora digitifera includes novel domain combinations. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30 (1). pp. 167-176.

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Innate immunity in corals is of special interest not only in the context of self-defense but also in relation to the establishment and collapse of their obligate symbiosis with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. In innate immunity system of vertebrates, approximately 20 tripartite nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor proteins that are defined by the presence of a NAIP, CIIA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain, a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, and one of three types of N-terminal effector domain, are known to function as the primary intracellular pattern recognition molecules. Surveying the coral genome revealed not only a larger number of NACHT- and related domain nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4 (NB-ARC)-encoding loci (~500) than in other metazoans but also surprising diversity of domain combinations among the coral NACHT/NB-ARC-containing proteins; N-terminal effector domains included the apoptosis-related domains caspase recruitment domain (CARD), death effector domain (DED), and Death, and C-terminal repeat domains included LRRs, tetratricopeptide repeats, ankyrin repeats, and WD40 repeats. Many of the predicted coral proteins that contain a NACHT/NB-ARC domain also contain a glycosyl transferase group 1 domain, a novel domain combination first found in metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the NACHT/NB-ARC domain inventories of various metazoan lineages, including corals, are largely products of lineage-specific expansions. Many of the NACHT/NB-ARC loci are organized in pairs or triplets in the Acropora genome, suggesting that the large coral NACHT/NB-ARC repertoire has been generated at least in part by tandem duplication. In addition, shuffling of N-terminal effector domains may have occurred after expansions of specific NACHT/NB-ARC-repeat domain types. These results illustrate the extraordinary complexity of the innate immune repertoire of corals, which may in part reflect adaptive evolution to a symbiotic lifestyle in a uniquely complex and challenging environment.

Item ID: 25071
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1537-1719
Keywords: corals, innate immunity, NOD-like receptor, domain combination, glycosyl transferase domain
Funders: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
Date Deposited: 20 Feb 2013 09:07
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0608 Zoology > 060804 Animal Immunology @ 30%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060409 Molecular Evolution @ 30%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0604 Genetics > 060408 Genomics @ 40%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 50%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 50%
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