Tetranuclear Polypyridylruthenium(II) Complexes as Selective Nucleic Acid Stains for Flow Cytometric Analysis of Monocytic and Epithelial Lung Carcinoma Large Extracellular Vesicles

Wardhani, Kartika, Levina, Aviva, Sun, Biyun, Zou, Haipei, Grau, Georges E.R., Keene, Richard, Collins, J. Grant, and Lay, Peter A. (2024) Tetranuclear Polypyridylruthenium(II) Complexes as Selective Nucleic Acid Stains for Flow Cytometric Analysis of Monocytic and Epithelial Lung Carcinoma Large Extracellular Vesicles. Biomolecules, 14 (6). 664.

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Abstract

Selective staining of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a major challenge for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Herein, the EV labeling properties of a new class of tetranuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes, Rubb7-TNL and Rubb7-TL, as phosphorescent stains are described. These new stains have many advantages over standard stains to detect and characterize EVs, including: high specificity for EV staining versus cell staining; high phosphorescence yields; photostability; and a lack of leaching from EVs until incorporation with target cells. As an example of their utility, large EVs released from control (basal) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells were studied as a model of immune system EVs released during bacterial infection. Key findings from EV staining combined with flow cytometry were as follows: (i) LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells generated significantly larger and more numerous large EVs, as compared with those from unstimulated cells; (ii) EVs retained native EV physical properties after staining; and (iii) the new stains selectively differentiated intact large EVs from artificial liposomes, which are models of cell membrane fragments or other lipid-containing debris, as well as distinguished two distinct subpopulations of monocytic EVs within the same experiment, as a result of biochemical differences between unstimulated and LPS-stimulated monocytes. Comparatively, the staining patterns of A549 epithelial lung carcinoma-derived EVs closely resembled those of THP-1 cell line-derived EVs, which highlighted similarities in their selective staining despite their distinct cellular origins. This is consistent with the hypothesis that these new phosphorescent stains target RNA within the EVs.

Item ID: 82947
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2218-273X
Keywords: ruthenium phosphorescent complexes; selective extracellular vesicle stain; microvesicles; flow cytometry; nucleic acids
Copyright Information: © 2024 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2024 00:19
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310105 Cellular interactions (incl. adhesion, matrix, cell wall) @ 40%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310110 Receptors and membrane biology @ 40%
34 CHEMICAL SCIENCES > 3402 Inorganic chemistry > 340201 Bioinorganic chemistry @ 20%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 40%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280105 Expanding knowledge in the chemical sciences @ 20%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280112 Expanding knowledge in the health sciences @ 40%
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