The Plasticity of Immune Cell Response Complicates Dissecting the Underlying Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis

Sarkar, Sujan Kumar, Willson, Annie M.L., and Jordan, Margaret A. (2024) The Plasticity of Immune Cell Response Complicates Dissecting the Underlying Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of Immunology Research, 2024. 5383099.

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Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of the myelin sheath of the neuronal axon in the central nervous system. Many risk factors, including environmental, epigenetic, genetic, and lifestyle factors, are responsible for the development of MS. It has long been thought that only adaptive immune cells, especially autoreactive T cells, are responsible for the pathophysiology; however, recent evidence has indicated that innate immune cells are also highly involved in disease initiation and progression. Here, we compile the available data regarding the role immune cells play in MS, drawn from both human and animal research. While T and B lymphocytes, chiefly enhance MS pathology, regulatory T cells (Tregs) may serve a more protective role, as can B cells, depending on context and location. Cells chiefly involved in innate immunity, including macrophages, microglia, astrocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, eosinophils, and mast cells, play varied roles. In addition, there is evidence regarding the involvement of innate-like immune cells, such as γδ T cells, NKT cells, MAIT cells, and innate-like B cells as crucial contributors to MS pathophysiology. It is unclear which of these cell subsets are involved in the onset or progression of disease or in protective mechanisms due to their plastic nature, which can change their properties and functions depending on microenvironmental exposure and the response of neural networks in damage control. This highlights the need for a multipronged approach, combining stringently designed clinical data with carefully controlled in vitro and in vivo research findings, to identify the underlying mechanisms so that more effective therapeutics can be developed.

Item ID: 81705
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2314-7156
Copyright Information: Copyright © 2024 Sujan Kumar Sarkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC), Multiple Sclerosis Research Australia (MSRA), Australian Postgraduate Award (stipend for 3.5 years), Lions Clubs of Australia, Womens Health Research, Translation and Impact Network (WHTRTN)
Projects and Grants: MS Research Australia/NHMRC Research Betty Cuthbert Fellowship, MSRA Research grant 15-025, WHRTN EMCR Award 2021-22, Australian Postgraduate Award (stipend for 3.5 years), Multiple Sclerosis Research Program, Lions Club Australia, Project grant
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2024 00:55
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320406 Immunogenetics (incl. genetic immunology) @ 50%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320403 Autoimmunity @ 50%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200104 Prevention of human diseases and conditions @ 50%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280103 Expanding knowledge in the biomedical and clinical sciences @ 50%
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