Phylogenomics reveals deep relationships and diversification within phylactolaemate bryozoans

Saadi, Ahmed J., Bibermair, Julian, Kocot, Kevin M., Roberts, Nickellaus G., Hirose, Masato, Calcino, Andrew, Baranyi, Christian, Chaichana, Ratcha, Wood, Timothy S., and Schwaha, Thomas (2022) Phylogenomics reveals deep relationships and diversification within phylactolaemate bryozoans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 289 (1986). 20221504.

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Bryozoans are mostly sessile colonial invertebrates that inhabit all kinds of aquatic ecosystems. Extant bryozoan species fall into two clades with one of them, Phylactolaemata, being the only exclusively freshwater clade. Phylogenetic relationships within the class Phylactolaemata have long been controversial owing to their limited distinguishable characteristics that reflect evolutionary relationships. Here, we present the first phylogenomic analysis of Phylactolaemata using transcriptomic data combined with dense taxon sampling of six families to better resolve the interrelationships and to estimate divergence time. Using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference approaches, we recovered a robust phylogeny for Phylactolaemata in which the interfamilial relationships are fully resolved. We show Stephanellidae is the sister taxon of all other phylactolaemates and confirm that Lophopodidae represents the second offshoot within the phylactolaemate tree. Plumatella fruticosa clearly falls outside Plumatellidae as previous investigations have suggested, and instead clusters with Pectinatellidae and Cristatellidae as the sister taxon of Fredericellidae. Our results demonstrate that cryptic speciation is very likely in F. sultana and in two species of Plumatella (P. repens and P. casmiana). Divergence time estimates show that Phylactolaemata appeared at the end of the Ediacaran and started to diverge in the Silurian, although confidence intervals were large for most nodes. The radiation of most extant phylactolaemate families occurred mainly in the Palaeogene and Neogene highlighting post-extinction diversification.

Item ID: 81688
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1471-2954
Keywords: Bryozoa; Phylactolaemata; divergence times; evolution; freshwater bryozoans; phylogeny
Copyright Information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2024 04:39
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3104 Evolutionary biology > 310499 Evolutionary biology not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 100%
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