Rapid and permanent cytotoxic effects of venom from Chiropsella bronzie and Malo maxima on human skeletal and cardiac muscle cells

Piontek, Melissa, Andreosso, Athena, and Smout, Michael (2023) Rapid and permanent cytotoxic effects of venom from Chiropsella bronzie and Malo maxima on human skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Toxicon, 233. 107250.

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Jellyfish envenomation is a global public health risk; Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are a prevalent jellyfish class with some species causing potent and potentially fatal envenomation in tropical Australian waters. Previous studies have explored the mechanism of action of venom from the lethal Cubozoan Chironex fleckeri and from Carukia barnesi (which causes “Irukandji syndrome”), but mechanistic knowledge to develop effective treatment is still limited. This study performed an in-vitro cytotoxic examination of the venoms of Chiropsella bronzie and Malo maxima, two understudied species that are closely related to Chironex fleckeri and Carukia barnesi respectively. Venom was applied to human skeletal muscle cells and human cardiomyocytes while monitoring with the xCELLigence system. Chiropsella bronzie caused rapid cytotoxicity at concentrations as low as 58.8 μg/mL. Malo maxima venom caused a notable increase in cell index, a measure of cell viability, followed by cytotoxicity after 24-h venom exposure at ≥11.2 μg/mL on skeletal muscle cells. In contrast, the cardiomyocytes mostly showed significant increased cell index at the higher M. maxima concentrations tested. These findings show that these venoms can exert cytotoxic effects and Malo maxima venom mainly caused a sustained increase in cell index across both human cell lines, suggesting a different mode of action to Chiropsella bronzie. As these venoms show different real-world envenomation symptoms, the different cellular toxicity profiles provide a first step towards developing improved understanding of mechanistic pathways and novel envenomation treatment.

Item ID: 80523
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1879-3150
Keywords: Chiropsella bronzie, Cytotoxicity, Human cell lines, Malo maxima, venom, xCELLigence
Copyright Information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/).
Date Deposited: 14 Feb 2024 00:33
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3101 Biochemistry and cell biology > 310101 Analytical biochemistry @ 100%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 100%
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