Wide variation of heterozygotic genotypes of recent fasciolid hybrids from livestock in Bangladesh assessed by rDNA internal transcribed spacer region sequencing and cloning

Ahasan, Syed Ali, De Elías-Escribano, Alejandra, Artigas, Patricio, Alam, Mohammad Zahangir, Mondal, M. Motahar Hussain, Blair, David, Chowdhury, Emdadul Haque, Bargues, M. Dolores, and Mas-Coma, Santiago (2023) Wide variation of heterozygotic genotypes of recent fasciolid hybrids from livestock in Bangladesh assessed by rDNA internal transcribed spacer region sequencing and cloning. One Health, 17. 100614. (In Press)

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Abstract

Fascioliasis causes high economic losses in livestock and underlies public health problems in rural areas, mainly of low-income countries. The increasing animal infection rates in Bangladesh were assessed, by focusing on host species, different parts of the country, and rDNA sequences. Fasciolid flukes were collected from buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep from many localities to assess prevalences and intensities of infection. The nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including ITS-1 and ITS-2 spacers was analyzed by direct sequencing and cloning, given the detection of intermediate phenotypic forms in Bangladesh. The 35.4% prevalence in goats and 55.5% in buffaloes are the highest recorded in these animals in Bangladesh. In cattle (29.3%) and sheep (26.8%) prevalences are also high for these species. These prevalences are very high when compared to lowlands at similar latitudes in neighboring India. The high prevalences and intensities appear in western Bangladesh where cross-border importation of animals from India occur. The combined haplotype CH3A of Fasciola gigantica widely found in all livestock species throughout Bangladesh fits its historical connections with the western Grand Trunk Road and the eastern Tea-Horse Road. The “pure” F. hepatica sequences only in clones from specimens showing heterozygotic positions indicate recent hybridization events with local “pure” F. gigantica, since concerted evolution did not yet have sufficient time to homogenize the rDNA operon. The detection of up to six different sequences coexisting in the cloned specimens evidences crossbreeding between hybrid parents, indicating repeated, superimposed and rapidly evolving hybridization events. The high proportion of hybrids highlights an increasing animal infection trend and human infection risk, and the need for control measures, mainly concerning goats in household farming management. ITS-1 and ITS-2 markers prove to be useful for detecting recent hybrid fasciolids. The introduction of a Fasciola species with imported livestock into a highly prevalent area of the other Fasciola species may lead to a high nucleotide variation in the species-differing positions in the extremely conserved fasciolid spacers. Results suggest that, in ancient times, frequent crossbreeding inside the same Fasciola species gave rise to the very peculiar characteristics of the present-day nuclear genome of both fasciolids.

Item ID: 80297
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2352-7714
Keywords: Animal importation, Bangladesh, Crossbreeding hybrids, Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica, Heterozygotic sequence complexity, ITS-1 and ITS-2, Livestock, Nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, Prevalences and intensities, Sequencing and cloning
Copyright Information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bync-nd/4.0/).
Date Deposited: 13 Sep 2023 04:27
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300909 Veterinary parasitology @ 50%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3104 Evolutionary biology > 310402 Biogeography and phylogeography @ 50%
SEO Codes: 10 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 1099 Other animal production and animal primary products > 109902 Animal welfare @ 30%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280101 Expanding knowledge in the agricultural, food and veterinary sciences @ 40%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 30%
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