HES and Mox genes are expressed during early mesoderm formation in a mollusk with putative ancestral features

Sachslehner, Attila, Zieger, Elisabeth, Calcino, Andrew, and Wanninger, Andreas (2021) HES and Mox genes are expressed during early mesoderm formation in a mollusk with putative ancestral features. Scientific Reports, 11. 18030.

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Abstract

The mesoderm is considered the youngest of the three germ layers. Although its morphogenesis has been studied in some metazoans, the molecular components underlying this process remain obscure for numerous phyla including the highly diverse Mollusca. Here, expression of Hairy and enhancer of split (HES), Mox, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) was investigated in Acanthochitona fascicularis, a representative of Polyplacophora with putative ancestral molluscan features. While AfaMHC is expressed throughout myogenesis, AfaMox1 is only expressed during early stages of mesodermal band formation and in the ventrolateral muscle, an autapomorphy of the polyplacophoran trochophore. Comparing our findings to previously published data across Metazoa reveals Mox expression in the mesoderm in numerous bilaterians including gastropods, polychaetes, and brachiopods. It is also involved in myogenesis in molluscs, annelids, tunicates, and craniates, suggesting a dual role of Mox in mesoderm and muscle formation in the last common bilaterian ancestor. AfaHESC2 is expressed in the ectoderm of the polyplacophoran gastrula and later in the mesodermal bands and in putative neural tissue, whereas AfaHESC7 is expressed in the trochoblasts of the gastrula and during foregut formation. This confirms the high developmental variability of HES gene expression and demonstrates that Mox and HES genes are pleiotropic.

Item ID: 80258
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2045-2322
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Date Deposited: 04 Sep 2023 06:27
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3104 Evolutionary biology > 310404 Evolution of developmental systems @ 100%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 100%
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