IgE-Mediated Shellfish Allergy in Children

Giovannini, Mattia, Beken, Burcin, Buyuktiryaki, Betul, Barni, Simona, Liccioli, Giulia, Sarti, Lucrezia, Lodi, Lorenzo, Pontone, Matteo, Bartha, Irene, Mori, Francesca, Sackesen, Cansin, du Toit, George, Lopata, Andreas L., and Muraro, Antonella (2023) IgE-Mediated Shellfish Allergy in Children. Nutrients, 15 (12). 2714.

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Abstract

Shellfish, including various species of mollusks (e.g., mussels, clams, and oysters) and crustaceans (e.g., shrimp, prawn, lobster, and crab), have been a keystone of healthy dietary recommendations due to their valuable protein content. In parallel with their consumption, allergic reactions related to shellfish may be increasing. Adverse reactions to shellfish are classified into different groups: (1) Immunological reactions, including IgE and non-IgE allergic reactions; (2) non-immunological reactions, including toxic reactions and food intolerance. The IgE-mediated reactions occur within about two hours after ingestion of the shellfish and range from urticaria, angioedema, nausea, and vomiting to respiratory signs and symptoms such as bronchospasm, laryngeal oedema, and anaphylaxis. The most common allergenic proteins involved in IgE-mediated allergic reactions to shellfish include tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, troponin c, and triosephosphate isomerase. Over the past decades, the knowledge gained on the identification of the molecular features of different shellfish allergens improved the diagnosis and the potential design of allergen immunotherapy for shellfish allergy. Unfortunately, immunotherapeutic studies and some diagnostic tools are still restricted in a research context and need to be validated before being implemented into clinical practice. However, they seem promising for improving management strategies for shellfish allergy. In this review, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of shellfish allergies in children are presented. The cross-reactivity among different forms of shellfish and immunotherapeutic approaches, including unmodified allergens, hypoallergens, peptide-based, and DNA-based vaccines, are also addressed.

Item ID: 79503
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2072-6643
Keywords: allergen, basophil activation test, children, component-resolved diagnosis, cross-reactivity, diagnosis, food allergy, immunotherapy, oral food challenge, shellfish, specific IgE
Copyright Information: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Date Deposited: 13 Feb 2024 23:51
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3204 Immunology > 320401 Allergy @ 100%
SEO Codes: 20 HEALTH > 2001 Clinical health > 200101 Diagnosis of human diseases and conditions @ 70%
20 HEALTH > 2004 Public health (excl. specific population health) > 200405 Food safety @ 30%
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