Configuration of Allocated Mangrove Areas and Protection of Mangrove-Dominated Muddy Coasts: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations

Phong, Nguyen Tan, and Luom, Thai Thanh (2021) Configuration of Allocated Mangrove Areas and Protection of Mangrove-Dominated Muddy Coasts: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations. Sustainability, 13 (11). 6258.

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Mangrove-dominated muddy coasts have been allocated for developing livelihood models, particularly in developing countries. Uncontrolled allocation causes the mangrove forests to be vulnerable and even severely eroded. Restoration of vulnerable and eroded coastal areas has been merely conservation-driven, leaving livelihood-oriented mangrove forests unprotected. As a consequence, mangrove-dominated muddy coasts have not been well-protected. How livelihood oriented mangrove forests are configured towards protecting coasts and protecting local livelihoods remains a challenge. This study employed a critical review for addressing this matter. The results reveal that there is limited practical knowledge of configuring livelihood-oriented models for protecting the coasts. The configuration process reported in this study is merely based on technical recommendations in South East Asia to date. The recommended configuration commences with the first stage of voluntarily designating a certain percentage of allocated forests on the seaward side to protect coasts, relocating livelihood models in the gaps among current stands of mangrove forests landward. Abandoned ponds are ecologically restored using sediment trapping structures for providing suitable substrate for promoting regrowth of local mangrove species as the second stage, followed by designation of an appropriate percentage as mangrove belts on the seaward side. The two-step configuration is highly likely to be replicable and applicable nationally and regionally due to full consideration of different political, sociocultural, and environmental characteristics in Vietnam and Indonesia.

Item ID: 78645
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2071-1050
Copyright Information: Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Date Deposited: 10 May 2023 02:23
FoR Codes: 41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410406 Natural resource management @ 100%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1805 Marine systems and management > 180507 Rehabilitation or conservation of marine environments @ 100%
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