Estimation of sex from metatarsals using discriminant function and logistic regression analyses

Bidmos, M.A., Adebesin, A.A., Mazengenya, P., Olateju, O.I., and Adegboye, Oyelola (2021) Estimation of sex from metatarsals using discriminant function and logistic regression analyses. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53 (5). pp. 543-556.

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South Africa has one of the highest crime rates in the world and the discovery of dismembered bodies for human identification process poses a greater challenge. The South African Africans (also known as South African blacks) population group is often the victims of crimes as they are the largest group. While measurements of several bones of the human skeleton have been used for sex estimation, the potential of metatarsals have not been explored in this population group. Metatarsal bones are usually well-preserved since they are recovered in shoes protected from scavengers and they are able to withstand environmental degradation and taphonomy. This study investigated the potential of measurements of metatarsals in sex estimate amongst South African Africans using logistic and discriminant function analysis. Six measurements of metatarsals from 100 individuals of known sex and population affinity from the Raymond Dart Collection of Human skeletons were analysed. Various combinations of measurements of metatarsal bones yielded suitably high average accuracies (79% to 84%) for sex estimation and are comparable to functions derived from other skeletal elements of South African Africans. Metatarsals of South African Africans are therefore useful as alternatives to highly sexual dimorphic bones in the forensic estimation of sex.

Item ID: 75317
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1834-562X
Keywords: discriminant function analysis, Estimation of sex, forensic anthropology, logistic regression analysis, metatarsals, South Africa
Copyright Information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2022 06:55
FoR Codes: 49 MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES > 4905 Statistics > 490504 Forensic evaluation, inference and statistics @ 35%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3199 Other biological sciences > 319901 Forensic biology @ 30%
44 HUMAN SOCIETY > 4401 Anthropology > 440102 Anthropology of gender and sexuality @ 35%
SEO Codes: 28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280118 Expanding knowledge in the mathematical sciences @ 50%
28 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 2801 Expanding knowledge > 280102 Expanding knowledge in the biological sciences @ 50%
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