The MPA guide: a framework to achieve global goals for the ocean

Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten, Sullivan-Stack, Jenna, Roberts, Callum, Constant, Vanessa, Horta e Costa, Barbara, Pike, Elizabeth P., Kingston, Naomi, Laffoley, Dan, Sala, Enric, Claudet, Joachim, Friedlander, Alan M., Gill, David A., Lester, Sarah E., Day, Jon C., Gonçalves, Emanuel J., Ahmadia, Gabby N., Rand, Matt, Villagomez, Angelo, Ban, Natalie C., Gurney, Georgina G., Spalding, Ana K., Bennett, Nathan J., Briggs, Johnny, Morgan, Lance E., Moffitt, Russell, Deguignet, Marine, Pikitch, Ellen K., Darling, Emily S., Jessen, Sabine, Hameed, Sarah O., Di Carlo, Giuseppe, Guidetti, Paolo, Harris, Jean M., Torre, Jorge, Kizilkaya, Zafer, Agardy, Tundi, Cury, Philippe, Shah, Nirmal J., Sack, Karen, Cao, Ling, Fernandez, Miriam, and Lubchenco, Jane (2021) The MPA guide: a framework to achieve global goals for the ocean. Science, 373 (6560). eabf0861.

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Abstract

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are conservation tools intended to protect biodiversity, promote healthy and resilient marine ecosystems, and provide societal benefits. Despite codification of MPAs in international agreements, MPA effectiveness is currently undermined by confusion about the many MPA types and consequent wildly differing outcomes. We present a clarifying science-driven framework—The MPA Guide—to aid design and evaluation. The guide categorizes MPAs by stage of establishment and level of protection, specifies the resulting direct and indirect outcomes for biodiversity and human well-being, and describes the key conditions necessary for positive outcomes. Use of this MPA Guide by scientists, managers, policymakers, and communities can improve effective design, implementation, assessment, and tracking of existing and future MPAs to achieve conservation goals by using scientifically grounded practices.

Item ID: 70119
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1095-9203
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2022 00:33
FoR Codes: 41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410401 Conservation and biodiversity @ 100%
SEO Codes: 18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1805 Marine systems and management > 180504 Marine biodiversity @ 40%
18 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT > 1802 Coastal and estuarine systems and management > 180201 Assessment and management of coastal and estuarine ecosystems @ 20%
19 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL HAZARDS > 1902 Environmental policy, legislation and standards > 190205 Environmental protection frameworks (incl. economic incentives) @ 40%
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