Research for development of lobster growout technology in Indonesia [Final report on ACIAR project FIS/2014/059]

Jones, Clive (2020) Research for development of lobster growout technology in Indonesia [Final report on ACIAR project FIS/2014/059]. Report. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

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Abstract

Lobster aquaculture in Indonesia is likely to develop significantly in the next several years, bolstered in part by the outputs from this project. Significant outcomes and outputs were achieved, despite substantial challenges of a political nature that necessitated suspension of several planned research activities during the course of the project. It was fortunate that the project made a fast and robust start, subsequent to and as a result of the project inception meeting held in October 2015. Significant progress was made across all four original objectives and milestones through 2016 and up to the projects first annual workshop on 7 March 2017. Immediately following that workshop, political sensitivity surrounding the wild harvest of lobster puerulus (early juvenile growth stage transitioning from planktonic to benthic adult) resulted in a project variation. Once banned, lobster cage-based farming by coastal communities was deemed illegal as it relied on the wild harvest of puerulus. While the fishing and farming of lobsters in Indonesia remained a politically sensitive issue, the new regulation specifically allowed for research on lobsters to continue, including for aquaculture. BRSDM requested the variation to reduce the footprint of the project by removing the activities at DGA Centres in Lombok and Aceh. While the variation was being considered by the Indonesian authority, all research activities were suspended, which continued to February 2018. The variation was revised further to remove Objective 1 (lobster seed fishery assessments) and all industry development activities. The project subsequently focussed on diet development using 200g+ wild lobsters (as collection of smaller sized animals was illegal by then). Research into lobster seed (common term for lobster puerulus) supply included field and tank experiments and assessments conducted by project associates at MADC Lombok and BBAP Ujung Batee Aceh. A field survey was completed to quantify the geographic extent and catch statistics for seed from west Java to east Sumbawa, that confirmed high abundance of settling puerulus throughout that range and an estimated annual catch of 100 million seed. Experiments were completed for seed catch technique, seed condition, transport methods, weaning to manufactured diets and feeding frequency. These data contribute significantly to a standard operating protocol for seed capture and handling. Nevertheless, post-capture seed mortality remains high and further development of effective technology to achieve acceptable survival (>70%) and high quality (robustness in cage rearing systems) is necessary for commercial operations (Jones et al., 2019). Research on diet development for nursery production conducted at IMRAD Gondol, Bali included several experiments to refine the formulation of pelleted feed. These experiments confirmed that diets made with locally available ingredients are as effective as others with ingredients sourced from outside Indonesia, and that dry pellets are as effective as semi-moist for juvenile lobsters greater than 3g. The research has highlighted the need for more research and development on the initial nursery phase, from puerulus to 3g. Mortality of juveniles through this nursery phase was consistently high and unacceptable for commercial success. Further research is required to develop husbandry management methods to achieve the target survival of more than 70% from stocking with juveniles to harvest of market-sized animals at 500g to 1kg. A diet formulation was defined from a series of experiments using 200g+ lobsters. This formulation is suitable for commercial manufacture. However, the growth and survival of lobsters is superior when a fresh seafood diet is used, and further research. Further developments are required to address issues of formulated diet attractiveness to achieve maximum ingestion. Unlike most aquacultured fish species, marine rock lobsters are fussy feeders and will require food variety and diets that are highly attractive. Socio-economic research was performed with community surveys in Lombok and Sumbawa. In Lombok, where lobster growout had been established in the past, but is currently abandoned, a survey was conducted to explore the opportunity for coastal villages to re-engage with lobster farming. In Sumbawa, where lobster farming has never before been contemplated, a comprehensive socio-economic survey was performed to explore the opportunity for coastal villages to engage in lobster farming in future. The data indicate the individuals and families of these coastal communities are risk averse and will require interventions to increase their knowledge and confidence to engage in lobster aquaculture. Community discussion (focus groups), demonstration farms and government extension programmes will be required to increase participation. Market-chain assessment research was completed with information gathered on the existing fishery lobster products in Indonesia and on premium markets in China. The market opportunity for Indonesian farmed lobsters is strong, but must be met with a focus on meeting market requirements and quality of product. Farmed lobster from Vietnam is perceived by China markets as inferior, attracting a sub-premium price. Indonesia has an opportunity to avoid this, focussing on product that is equivalent to premium wild caught. Indonesia is poised for rapid and significant expansion of lobster aquaculture. At the time this report was prepared, Indonesian Government policy had been revised to once again support lobster seed fishing and lobster farming, and likely allow a small export sector to develop. The fundamental requirements for a large scale, sustainable lobster aquaculture industry are in place, and with further government and R&D support, Indonesian lobster aquaculture can grow quickly and employ thousands of people in coastal communities in viable and sustainable livelihoods.

Item ID: 67172
Item Type: Report (Report)
ISBN: 978-1-922345-57-8
Keywords: lobster; aquaculture; Panulirus; Indonesia
Copyright Information: © Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) 2020 - This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from ACIAR, GPO Box 1571, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, aciar@aciar.gov.au.
Additional Information:

This report is currently available for download via the publisher's website.

Funders: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)
Projects and Grants: Project FIS/2014/059
Date Deposited: 03 Jun 2021 06:36
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3005 Fisheries sciences > 300501 Aquaculture @ 100%
SEO Codes: 10 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 1002 Fisheries - aquaculture > 100206 Aquaculture rock lobster @ 100%
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