Wildlife hunting, alternative protein sources and biodiversity conservation on the Bird's Head Peninsula of West Papua, Indonesia

Pattiselanno, Freddy (2015) Wildlife hunting, alternative protein sources and biodiversity conservation on the Bird's Head Peninsula of West Papua, Indonesia. PhD thesis, James Cook University.

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View at Publisher Website: https://doi.org/10.25903/g6wy-vy70
 
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Abstract

The main reason for hunting in tropical forests is because wildlife is the most accessible animal protein especially for those in rural areas. Little appears in the scientific literature about the importance of wildlife in West Papua with the exception of some information on the traditional uses of wildlife and its contribution to household diets. Different major drivers of hunting were identified, and in West Papua, there is an urgent need to address factors that increase pressure on hunting, including access to forest sites, increases in human population and available alternative protein sources. Using data from 1020 hunters from 11 villages interviewed between June 2011 and July 2013, this thesis explores indigenous hunting practices in the context of village livelihoods. Information on the distances that hunters travel and hunting offtakes during 387 hunting excursions, combined with offtakes from 33 hunters over seven months provides details of hunting effort and strategies and the socio-economic factors influencing hunting. A survey of meals in 696 households also provides in-depth information on consumption patterns, in particular of wild meat.

As well as being important in providing food, road-side hunting was conducted for cash income. Hunters are also involved in trapping to maximise harvest rates from particular prey such as deer and pig for trading purposes. Although roads increase wild meat trading, road connection provides more options to find meals for household consumption and decreases the reliance on wild meat as a protein source for family tables.

Increased human population growth increases people's reliance on agriculture. The production of crop lands (tuber crops and bananas) satisfies people's needs for carbohydrates, but not for animal protein. In villages with larger populations, hunting was mostly performed for family consumption.

I hypothesised that marine protected areas (MPAs) would reduce the supply of fish in some villages. Alternatively, agriculture and might be a more important livelihood than fishing regardless of the MPA. For many rural households along the coast of the Bird's Head Peninsula wild meat is not a luxury or resource they only turn to in times of hardship; it is a vital source of animal protein, and a commodity that can be sold.

This study is the first detailed investigation of how road development, increased human population and availability of alternative protein sources affect indigenous hunting along the coastal landscape. It shows that road connections shift livelihood options from subsistence-based to market-based, influencing hunting of introduced species for alternative income and provides more access to alternatives. Population density impacts on hunter's livelihoods, shifting intermittently between formal and informal occupations for cash to supplement crop-related incomes. Availability, or not, of alternative protein sources such as marine resources, did not appear to significantly affect hunting practices along the coast of the Bird's Head Peninsula. From a practical standpoint, policy to tackle reliance on wild meat in this context will require several strategies in tandem, such as: providing alternative livelihoods for revenue; improving agricultural infrastructure; offering economic opportunities and employment; and educating hunters and buyers.

Item ID: 64303
Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: hunting, coast landscape, Bird's Head Peninsula of Papua, food security, alternative protein, rural livelihoods, population
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Copyright Information: Copyright © 2015 Freddy Pattiselanno.
Additional Information:

Two publications arising from this thesis are stored in ResearchOnline@JCU, at the time of processing. Please see the Related URLs. The publications are:

Pattiselanno, Freddy, Lloyd, Janice K.F., Sayer, Jeffrey, Boedhihartono, Agni Klintuni, and Arobaya, Agustina (2020) Wild meat trade chain on the Bird's Head Peninsula of West Papua Province, Indonesia. Journal of Ethnobiology, 40 (2). pp. 202-217.

Pattiselanno, Freddy, and Lubis, Muhammad Irfansyah (2014) Hunting at the Abun regional marine protected areas: a link between wildmeat and food security. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 21 (4). pp. 180-186.

Date Deposited: 21 Sep 2020 22:55
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050211 Wildlife and Habitat Management @ 50%
05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050210 Pacific Peoples Environmental Knowledge @ 25%
16 STUDIES IN HUMAN SOCIETY > 1601 Anthropology > 160104 Social and Cultural Anthropology @ 25%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960899 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity of Environments not elsewhere classified @ 50%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970105 Expanding Knowledge in the Environmental Sciences @ 25%
95 CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING > 9599 Other Cultural Understanding > 959999 Cultural Understanding not elsewhere classified @ 25%
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