The future of aquatic protein: implications for protein sources in aquaculture diets

Hua, Katheline, Cobcroft, Jennifer M., Cole, Andrew, Condon, Kelly, Jerry, Dean R., Mangott, Arnold, Praeger, Christina, Vucko, Matthew J., Zeng, Chaoshu, Zenger, Kyall, and Strugnell, Jan M. (2019) The future of aquatic protein: implications for protein sources in aquaculture diets. One Earth, 1 (3). pp. 316-329.

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Abstract

Approximately 70% of the aquatic-based production of animals is fed aquaculture, whereby animals are provided with high-protein aquafeeds. Currently, aquafeeds are reliant on fish meal and fish oil sourced from wild-captured forage fish. However, increasing use of forage fish is unsustainable and, because an additional 37.4 million tons of aquafeeds will be required by 2025, alternative protein sources are needed. Beyond plantbased ingredients, fishery and aquaculture byproducts and insect meals have the greatest potential to supply the protein required by aquafeeds over the next 10–20 years. Food waste also has potential through the biotransformation and/or bioconversion of raw waste materials, whereas microbial and macroalgal biomass have limitations regarding their scalability and protein content, respectively. In this review, we describe the considerable scope for improved efficiency in fed aquaculture and discuss the development and optimization of alternative protein sources for aquafeeds to ensure a socially and environmentally sustainable future for the aquaculture industry.

Item ID: 61160
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2590-3322
Keywords: fish meal, forage fish, food waste, insects, macroalgae, microalgae, yeast, bacteria, nutrition, selective breeding
Copyright Information: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Date Deposited: 10 Dec 2019 23:30
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0704 Fisheries Sciences > 070401 Aquaculture @ 85%
10 TECHNOLOGY > 1002 Environmental Biotechnology > 100205 Environmental Marine Biotechnology @ 15%
SEO Codes: 83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8301 Fisheries - Aquaculture > 830199 Fisheries - Aquaculture not elsewhere classified @ 50%
83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8398 Environmentally Sustainable Animal Production > 839899 Environmentally Sustainable Animal Production not elsewhere classified @ 50%
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