Ice ages and butterflyfishes: phylogenomics elucidates the ecological and evolutionary history of reef fishes in an endemism hotspot

Dibattista, Joseph D., Alfaro, Michael E., Sorenson, Laurie, Choat, John H., Hobbs, Jean-Paul A., Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H., Rocha, Luiz A., Chang, Jonathan, Luiz, Osmar J., Cowman, Peter F., Friedman, Matt, and Berumen, Michael L. (2018) Ice ages and butterflyfishes: phylogenomics elucidates the ecological and evolutionary history of reef fishes in an endemism hotspot. Ecology and Evolution, 8 (22). pp. 10989-11008.

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For tropical marine species, hotspots of endemism occur in peripheral areas furthest from the center of diversity, but the evolutionary processes that lead to their origin remain elusive. We test several hypotheses related to the evolution of peripheral endemics by sequencing ultraconserved element (UCE) loci to produce a genome‐scale phylogeny of 47 butterflyfish species (family Chaetodontidae) that includes all shallow water butterflyfish from the coastal waters of the Arabian Peninsula (i.e., Red Sea to Arabian Gulf) and their close relatives. Bayesian tree building methods produced a well‐resolved phylogeny that elucidated the origins of butterflyfishes in this hotspots of endemism. We show that UCEs, often used to resolve deep evolutionary relationships, represent an important tool to assess the mechanisms underlying recently diverged taxa. Our analyses indicate that unique environmental conditions in the coastal waters of the Arabian Peninsula probably contributed to the formation of endemic butterflyfishes. Older endemic species are also associated with narrow versus broad depth ranges, suggesting that adaptation to deeper coral reefs in this region occurred only recently (<1.75 Ma). Even though deep reef environments were drastically reduced during the extreme low sea level stands of glacial ages, shallow reefs persisted, and as such there was no evidence supporting mass extirpation of fauna in this region.

Item ID: 56650
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2045-7758
Keywords: biogeographic barriers, Chaetodon, coral reef, glaciation events, Pleistocene, ultraconserved elements
Copyright Information: © 2018 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Funders: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Competitive Research Funds (OCRF), National Geographic Society (NGS), National Science Foundation (NSF), USA, California Academy of Sciences, Australian Research Council (ARC)
Projects and Grants: KAUST Award CRG‐1‐2012‐BER‐002, NGS Grant 9024‐11, NSF Grant DEB‐0842397, ARC Discovery ECR Award DE170100516
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Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2018 07:33
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3104 Evolutionary biology > 310402 Biogeography and phylogeography @ 50%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3105 Genetics > 310510 Molecular evolution @ 50%
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