Absence of cellular damage in tropical newly hatched sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) under ocean acidification conditions

Lopes, Ana Rita, Sampaio, Eduardo, Santos, Catarina, Couto, Ana, Pegado, Maria Rita, Diniz, Mario, Munday, Philip L., Rummer, Jodie L., and Rosa, Rui (2018) Absence of cellular damage in tropical newly hatched sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) under ocean acidification conditions. Cell Stress and Chaperones, 23 (5). pp. 837-846.

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Abstract

Sharks have maintained a key role in marine food webs for 400 million years and across varying physicochemical contexts, suggesting plasticity to environmental change. In this study, we investigated the biochemical effects of ocean acidification (OA) levels predicted for 2100 (pCO(2) similar to 900 mu atm) on newly hatched tropical whitespotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Specifically, we measured lipid, protein, and DNA damage levels, as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic ROS scavengers in juvenile sharks exposed to elevated CO2 for 50 days following hatching. Moreover, we also assessed the secondary oxidative stress response, i.e., heat shock response and ubiquitin levels. Newly hatched sharks appear to cope with OA-related stress through a range of tissue-specific biochemical strategies, specifically through the action of antioxidant enzymatic compounds. Our findings suggest that ROS-scavenging molecules, rather than complex enzymatic proteins, provide an effective defense mechanism in dealing with OA-elicited ROS formation. We argue that sharks' ancient antioxidant system, strongly based on non-enzymatic antioxidants (e.g., urea), may provide them with resilience towards OA, potentially beyond the tolerance of more recently evolved species, i.e., teleosts. Nevertheless, previous research has provided evidence of detrimental effects of OA (interacting with other climate-related stressors) on some aspects of shark biology. Moreover, given that long-term acclimation and adaptive potential to rapid environmental changes are yet experimentally unaccounted for, future research is warranted to accurately predict shark physiological performance under future ocean conditions.

Item ID: 55567
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1466-1268
Keywords: carbon dioxide, CO2, elasmobranchs, antioxidant systems, heat shock response, oxidative damage
Copyright Information: © Cell Stress Society International 2018
Funders: Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies
Projects and Grants: FCT project grant PTDC/AAG-GLO/1926/2014, FCT Programa Investigador FCT 2013
Date Deposited: 12 Sep 2018 08:47
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology > 060103 Cell Development, Proliferation and Death @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 100%
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