Biodiversity and climate change in the oceans

Booth, David J., Poloczanska, Elvira, Donelson, Jennifer M., García Molinos, Jorge, and Burrows, Michael (2018) Biodiversity and climate change in the oceans. In: Phillips, Bruce F., and Perez-Ramirez, Monica, (eds.) Climate Change Impacts on Fisheries and Aquaculture: a global analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp. 63-89.

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Abstract

The chapter summarizes global biodiversity patterns in oceans, with comments on estuaries and freshwater habitats, and the influence climate change may have on these patterns. Biodiversity patterns at a global scale owe much to climate and dispersal capabilities of individual organisms. The ocean constitutes over 90% of the habitable space on the planet. Thirty per cent of extant phylogenic groups are exclusively marine, whereas only one phylum (Arachnida) is exclusively terrestrial. However, of the estimated 8.7 million species on Earth, 2.2 million are estimated to be marine with 90% yet to be described (Mora et al., 2011). The Achi Biodiversity Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity aim to conserve 17% of land and freshwater and 10% of marine and coastal areas by 2020. Presently, approximately 12% of the land area is protected, against <1% of the world's oceans and adjacent seas, representing roughly 70% and 10% of the 2020 conservation goals set by the Achi targets. The abundance of life in oceans is extremely variable, with high species diversity and biomass on many continental shelf seas particularly the western equatorial Pacific region where coral reefs support a rich biodiversity (Tittensor et al., 2010), estimated over 1,000 species per m2. Oceans are major sources of global wealth, and ocean fisheries provide over 15% of human dietary intake of animal protein. However, they are all vulnerable to impacts of different types – commercial overexploitation of the world's fish stocks is so severe that it has been estimated that up to 13% of global fisheries have collapsed.

This chapter will discuss the major climate change‐linked stressors that affect ocean biodiversity, and how these act via direct and indirect means to affect fish populations and assemblages. We will look at a range of approaches to understanding climate change responses, including empirical, physiological, behavioral, and modeling.

Item ID: 54286
Item Type: Book Chapter (Research - B1)
ISBN: 978-1-119-15404-4
Date Deposited: 11 Mar 2019 00:31
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology) @ 50%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0699 Other Biological Sciences > 069902 Global Change Biology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9603 Climate and Climate Change > 960310 Global Effects of Climate Change and Variability (excl. Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica and the South Pacific) @ 100%
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