Spatial analysis of mineral deposit distribution: a review of methods and implications for structural controls on iron oxide-copper-gold mineralization in Carajas, Brazil

Haddad-Martim, Paulo Miguel, de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto, and Carranza, Emmanuel John M. (2017) Spatial analysis of mineral deposit distribution: a review of methods and implications for structural controls on iron oxide-copper-gold mineralization in Carajas, Brazil. Ore Geology Reviews, 81 (Part 1). pp. 230-244.

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Abstract

Mineral deposits are formed by interaction of various geological processes and conditioned by controls that favor their formation and preservation. The understanding of mineralization controls is critical for mineral exploration because it allows focusing exploration on regions where these controls are concentrated. The analysis of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits, particularly on a regional scale, can provide information relevant to the understanding of regional-scale processes involved during their formation. Here we present a review of Fry and fractal methods for spatial analysis of mineral deposit distribution and an application using the iron oxide-copper -gold (IOCG) deposits of the Carajas Mineral Province (Brazil). Results show that different IOCG mineralization structural controls acted in scales of <10-15 km, 15 to 40 km, and >40 km. The IOCG deposits cluster at scales of <40 km, whereas different clusters of IOCG deposits form WNW-ESE alignments at scales larger than 40 km. Structures oriented to WNW-ESE, E-W and NW-SE,with secondary trends to ENE-WSW and NNE-SSW, host the main IOCG deposits in Carajas. Additionally, Carajas IOCG deposits are located in areas with intermediate to high fractal dimensions, reflecting tracts with intermediate to high complexity of structural patterns. Information yielded in this work provides relevant criteria for further exploration for IOCG deposits in the region, including an indication of a possible new WNW-ESE central trend, apart from the northern and southern copper belts in the Carajas Mineral Province.

Item ID: 50563
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1872-7360
Keywords: fractal analysis, fry analysis, spatial analysis, IOCG deposit, mineralization control, mineral prospecting
Funders: São Paulo Funding Agency (FAPESP), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Brazil (CAPES), National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq)
Projects and Grants: FAPESP/CAPES grant FAPESP 2015/11186-3, CNPq grant 2014-9/401316, CNPq research grant no. 2008-7/303563
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2017 10:04
FoR Codes: 04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0403 Geology > 040306 Mineralogy and Crystallography @ 50%
04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0403 Geology > 040307 Ore Deposit Petrology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970104 Expanding Knowledge in the Earth Sciences @ 50%
84 MINERAL RESOURCES (excl. Energy Resources) > 8401 Mineral Exploration > 840199 Mineral Exploration not elsewhere classified @ 50%
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