Pathogenesis of frog virus 3 (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) infection in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

Forzán, M.J., Jones, K.M., Ariel, E., Whittington, R.J., Wood, J., Markham, R.J. Frederick, and Daoust, P-Y. (2017) Pathogenesis of frog virus 3 (Ranavirus, Iridoviridae) infection in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Veterinary Pathology, 54 (3). pp. 531-548.

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Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) are highly susceptible to infection with Frog virus 3 (FV3, Ranavirus, Iridoviridae), a cause of mass mortality in wild populations. To elucidate the pathogenesis of FV3 infection in wood frogs, 40 wild-caught adults were acclimated to captivity, inoculated orally with a fatal dose of 10(4.43) pfu/frog, and euthanized at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 9, and 14 days postinfection (dpi). Mild lesions occurred sporadically in the skin (petechiae) and bone marrow (necrosis) during the first 2 dpi. Severe lesions occurred 1 to 2 weeks postinfection and consisted of necrosis of medullary and extramedullary hematopoietic tissue, lymphoid tissue in spleen and throughout the body, and epithelium of skin, mucosae, and renal tubules. Viral DNA was first detected (polymerase chain reaction) in liver at 4 dpi; by dpi 9 and 14, all viscera tested (liver, kidney, and spleen), skin, and feces were positive. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) first detected viral antigen in small areas devoid of histologic lesions in the oral mucosa, lung, and colon at 4 dpi; by 9 and 14 dpi, IHC labeling of viral antigen associated with necrosis was found in multiple tissues. Based on IHC staining intensity and lesion severity, the skin, oral, and gastrointestinal epithelium and renal tubular epithelium were important sites of viral replication and shedding, suggesting that direct contact (skin) and fecal-oral contamination are effective routes of transmission and that skin tissue, oral, and cloacal swabs may be appropriate antemortem diagnostic samples in late stages of disease (>1 week postinfection) but poor samples to detect infection in clinically healthy frogs.

Item ID: 50422
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1544-2217
Keywords: frog virus 3, Lithobates sylvaticus, pathogenesis, Rana sylvatica, ranavirus, wood frog
Funders: Alexander Graham Bell Graduate Scholarship-Doctoral, Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2017 08:48
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3109 Zoology > 310914 Vertebrate biology @ 50%
31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3109 Zoology > 310907 Animal physiological ecology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 100%
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