Phylogeny of deepwater snappers (Genus Etelis) reveals a cryptic species pair in the Indo-Pacific and Pleistocene invasion of the Atlantic

Andrews, Kimberly R., Williams, Ashley J., Fernandez-Silva, Iria, Newman, Steve J., Copus, Joshua M., Wakefield, Corey B., Randall, John E., and Bowen, Brian W. (2016) Phylogeny of deepwater snappers (Genus Etelis) reveals a cryptic species pair in the Indo-Pacific and Pleistocene invasion of the Atlantic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 100. pp. 361-371.

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Evolutionary genetic patterns in shallow coastal fishes are documented with dozens of studies, but corresponding surveys of deepwater fishes (>200 m) are scarce. Here we investigate the evolutionary history of deepwater snappers (genus Etelis), comprised of three recognized Indo-Pacific species and one Atlantic congener, by constructing a phylogeny of the genus with two mtDNA loci and two nuclear introns. Further, we apply range-wide Indo-Pacific sampling to test for the presence and distribution of a putative cryptic species pair within E. carbunculus using morphological analyses and mtDNA cytochrome b sequences from 14 locations across the species range (N = 1696). These analyses indicate that E. carbunculus is comprised of two distinct, non-interbreeding lineages separated by deep divergence (d = 0.081 in cytochrome b). Although these species are morphologically similar, we identified qualitative differences in coloration of the upper-caudal fin tip and the shape of the opercular spine, as well as significant differences in adult body length, body depth, and head length. These two species have overlapping Indo-Pacific distributions, but one species is more widespread across the Indo-Pacific, whereas the other species is documented in the Indian Ocean and Western Central Pacific. The dated Etelis phylogeny places the cryptic species divergence in the Pliocene, indicating that the biogeographic barrier between the Indian and Pacific Oceans played a role in speciation. Based on historic taxonomy and nomenclature, the species more widespread in the Pacific Ocean is E. carbunculus, and the other species is previously undescribed (referred to here as E. sp.). The Atlantic congener E. oculatus has only recently (~0.5 Ma) diverged from E. coruscans in the Indo-Pacific, indicating colonization via southern Africa. The pattern of divergence at the Indo-Pacific barrier, and Pleistocene colonization from the Indian Ocean into the Atlantic, is concordant with patterns observed in shallow coastal fishes, indicating similar drivers of evolutionary processes.

Item ID: 49350
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1095-9513
Keywords: introns; Lutjanidae ; Marine fishes; mitochondrial DNA; phylogeography; speciation; submesophotic snappers
Funders: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), University of Hawaii (UH), School of Ocean and Earth Science Technology (SOEST), Seaver Institute, National Science Foundation (NSF), USA, Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council (WPRFMC), Hawai'i Division of Aquatic Resources, Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), European Union Seventh Framework Programme (EU FP7)
Projects and Grants: NOAA project R/FM-18, UH Sea Grant College Program, SOEST Institutional Grant No. NA05OAR4171048, NOAA Office of Sea Grant, NOAA Pacific Island Fisheries Science Center Grant NA10NMF4520121, NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Coral Reef Ecosystem Studies Grant NA07NOS4780188, NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries Program MOA Grant No. 21005-008/66882, NSF Grant No. OIA0554657, NSF Grant No. OCE-09029031, NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program and Hawai'i Undersea Research Laboratory Grant NA05OAR4301108, WPRFMC Contract No. 05-WPC-033, EU FP7/2007-2011 grant agreement PIOF-GA-2011-302957
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2017 05:25
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3104 Evolutionary biology > 310401 Animal systematics and taxonomy @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960803 Documentation of Undescribed Flora and Fauna @ 20%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 80%
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