Atlantic-East Pacific red mangroves: Rhizophora mangle, R. samoensis, R. racemosa, R. X harrisonii

Duke, Norman C., and Allen, James A. (2006) Atlantic-East Pacific red mangroves: Rhizophora mangle, R. samoensis, R. racemosa, R. X harrisonii. In: Elevitch, Craig R., (ed.) Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands: their culture, environment, and use. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawaii, pp. 1-18.

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Abstract

Distribution: Native to American west and east coasts and African west coast. One species, Rhizophora mangle, was introduced to the central Pacific, including Hawai‘i and the Society Islands. Closely allied with Indo-West Pacific stilt mangroves whose ranges naturally overlap AEP mangroves only in the southern Pacific.

Size: Can reach 30–50 m (100–160 ft) in height, although commonly attains 5–8 m (16–26 ft).

Habitat: Inhabits the intertidal wetland zone, 0–6 m (0–20 ft) elevation between mean sea level and highest tides, with variable rainfall.

Vegetation: Commonly associated with other mangrove species. Soils Adapted to a very wide range of soils but thrives best in fine mud sediments of downstream river estuaries.

Growth rate: Grows less than 1 m/yr (3.3 ft/yr) in height. Main agroforestry uses Soil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna.

Main products: Timber, fuelwood, charcoal, dyes and traditional medicine.

Yields: Estimated yields of timber volume under bark were 100–150 m3/ha/yr (1,400–2,100 ft3/ac/yr).

Intercropping: Recommended for planting together with other mangrove species.

Invasive potentia: These plants are ready colonizers of new mud banks, making them opportunistically invasive with a high potential to invade alien environments; generally not recommended for planting outside of their natural range.

Item ID: 48532
Item Type: Book Chapter (Reference)
ISBN: 978-0-9702544-5-0
Keywords: mangroves; plants; Rhizophora; mangle; distribution; description; botany; genetics; propagation; uses; benefits; IWP; AEP
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Additional Information:

Duke, Norman C., and Allen, James A. (2006) Atlantic-East Pacific red mangroves: Rhizophora mangle, R. samoensis, R. racemosa, R. X harrisonii. In: Elevitch, Craig R., (ed.) Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands: Their Culture, Environment, and Use. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawaii, pp. 623-640.

Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2017 00:32
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050202 Conservation and Biodiversity @ 30%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0603 Evolutionary Biology > 060302 Biogeography and Phylogeography @ 40%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0603 Evolutionary Biology > 060310 Plant Systematics and Taxonomy @ 30%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960802 Coastal and Estuarine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 40%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960503 Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Coastal and Estuarine Environments @ 30%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 30%
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