A review of the phylogeny, ecology and toxin production of bloom-forming Aphanizomenon spp. and related species within the Nostocales (cyanobacteria)

Cires, Samuel, and Ballot, Andreas (2016) A review of the phylogeny, ecology and toxin production of bloom-forming Aphanizomenon spp. and related species within the Nostocales (cyanobacteria). Harmful Algae, 54. pp. 21-43.

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Abstract

The traditional genus Aphanizomenon comprises a group of filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of which several memebers are able to develop blooms and to produce toxic metabolites (cyanotoxins), including hepatotoxins (microcystins), neurotoxins (anatoxins and saxitoxins) and cytotoxins (cylindrospermopsin). This genus, representing geographically widespread and extensively studied cyanobacteria, is in fact heterogeneous and composed of at least five phylogenetically distant groups (Aphanizomenon, Anabaena/Aphanizomenon like cluster A, Cuspidothrix, Sphaerospermopsis and Chrysosporum) whose taxonomy is still under revision. This review provides a thorough insight into the phylogeny, ecology, biogeography and toxicogenomics (cyr, sxt, and ana genes) of the five best documented "Aphanizomenon" species with special relevance for water risk assessment: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Aphanizomenon gracile, Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi, Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides and Chrysosporum ovalisporum. Aph. flos-aquae, Aph. gracile and C. issatschenkoi have been reported from temperate areas only whereas S. aphanizomenoides shows the widest distribution from the tropics to temperate areas. Ch. ovalisporum is found in tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean areas. While all five species show moderate growth rates (0.1-0.4 day(-1)) within a wide range of temperatures (15-30 degrees C), Aph. gracile and A. flos-aquae can grow from around (or below) 10 degrees C, whereas Ch. ovalisporum and S. aphanizomenoides are much better competitors at high temperatures over 30 degrees C or even close to 35 degrees C.A. gracile has been confirmed as the producer of saxitoxins and cylindrospermopsin, C. issatschenkoi of anatoxins and saxitoxins and Ch. ovalisporum of cylindrospermopsin. The suspected cylindrospermopsin or anatoxin-a production of A. floc-aquae or microcystin production of S. aphanizomenoides is still uncertain. This review includes a critical discussion on the the reliability of toxicity reports and on the invasive potential of "Aphanizomenon" species in a climate change scenario, together with derived knowledge gaps and research needs. As a whole, this work is intended to represent a key reference for scientists and water managers involved in the major challenges of identifying, preventing and mitigating toxic Aphanizomenon blooms.

Item ID: 45485
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1878-1470
Keywords: invasive, cyanotoxin, Aphanizomenon, Sphaerospermopsis, Cuspidothrix, Chrysosporum
Funders: Research Council of Norway (RCN), Norwegian Institute of Water Research (NIWR)
Projects and Grants: RCN grant 196085/V10 (Monitoring of Cyanotoxins in Southern Africa)
Date Deposited: 13 Jul 2016 07:31
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0607 Plant Biology > 060701 Phycology (incl Marine Grasses) @ 50%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0605 Microbiology > 060501 Bacteriology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 100%
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