Predators drive community structure in coral reef fish assemblages

Boaden, A.E., and Kingsford, M.J. (2015) Predators drive community structure in coral reef fish assemblages. Ecosphere, 6 (4). 46. pp. 1-33.

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Abstract

The importance of top-down effects in structuring ecological communities has been widely debated by ecologists. One way in which to examine these processes is to study the secondary effects of predator removal on communities. This study examined the role of predatory fishes in structuring communities of coral reef fishes, by using a network of marine reserves (the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park) as a natural experiment. We hypothesized that reefs with high densities of piscivores (marine reserves) would have distinct fish communities from those where piscivores have been depleted through fishing, due to variation in predation pressure. We predicted that predator depletion would result in "prey release", and a corresponding increase in prey densities along a gradient of fishing intensity, causing a change in the community composition of reef fishes. To address this, fish counts and habitat surveys were conducted at four locations on the Great Barrier Reef. At each location, comparisons were made amongst three marine park zones that varied in their exposure to fishing practices; no- take marine reserves, limited fishing areas, and open fishing areas.

The density and biomass of predators varied consistently among zones at each location. Furthermore, we found strong evidence for prey release at all four locations, resulting in distinct fish assemblages amongst zones. Reefs open to fishing had much lower densities of piscivores, and higher densities of prey and herbivorous fishes compared to marine reserves. This broad pattern was consistent amongst locations, and persisted at the level of species, trophic groups, families and communities. Habitat characteristics did not vary significantly amongst zones in a consistent manner amongst locations. Although habitat relationships were strong for specialist species such as butterflyfishes, densities of predators were stronger predictors of prey density for most species, and the trophic composition of reef fish communities differed significantly amongst zones at all locations. Results from this study support the concept that top-down effects can be strong divers of prey populations and influence community structure in highly diverse systems. These data emphasize the vital role of predators, and reinforce the importance of preserving and restoring top-down trophic interactions in ecological systems.

Item ID: 41848
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2150-8925
Keywords: commercial fishing, conservation and management, coral reef fisheries, coral trout, fishing impacts, Great Barrier Reef, marine reserves, natural experiment, predator-prey interactions, recreational fishing, top-down effects, trophic dynamics
Additional Information:

© 2015 Boaden and Kingsford. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Funders: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University (JCU)
Date Deposited: 08 Dec 2015 16:53
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060205 Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl Marine Ichthyology) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 100%
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