Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach

Cumming, Graeme S., Allen, Craig R., Ban, Natalie C., Biggs, Duan, Biggs, Harry C., Cumming, David H.M., De Vos, Alta, Epstein, Graham, Etienne, Michel, Maciejewski, Kristine, Mathevet, Raphael, Moore, Christine, Nenadovic, Mateja, and Schoon, Michael (2015) Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach. Ecological Applications, 25 (2). pp. 299-319.

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Abstract

Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important cross-scale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale social-ecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.

Item ID: 40880
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1939-5582
Keywords: biosphere reserve, conservation, cross-scale, national park, nature reserve, protected areas, resilience, social-ecological system, socioecological system, spatial resilience
Funders: South African National Research Foundation, James S. McDonnell Foundation, European Commission
Projects and Grants: SCALES project
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2015 05:30
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0501 Ecological Applications > 050104 Landscape Ecology @ 33%
05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0502 Environmental Science and Management > 050202 Conservation and Biodiversity @ 33%
05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0501 Ecological Applications > 050199 Ecological Applications not elsewhere classified @ 34%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9605 Ecosystem Assessment and Management > 960501 Ecosystem Assessment and Management at Regional or Larger Scales @ 33%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9613 Remnant Vegetation and Protected Conservation Areas > 961308 Remnant Vegetation and Protected Conservation Areas at Regional or Larger Scales @ 33%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 34%
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