Constructing the human figure drawing continuum: one scale is 'good enough'

Campbell, Claire, and Bond, Trevor (2015) Constructing the human figure drawing continuum: one scale is 'good enough'. In: Abstracts from PROMS 2015: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium. From: PROMS 2015: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium, 22-24 August 2015, Fukuoka, Japan.

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Background: Florence Goodenough's doctoral student, Dale Harris, augmented the original Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test (DAMT) (Goodenough, 1926) to create the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Text (GHDT) (Harris, 1963). The revised GHDT required children to draw an adult female as well as a self-portrait, which is scored against the sex-appropriate DAM or DAW scoring criteria in addition to a drawing of a man.

Aims: The aims of the study were to examine: (1) the psychometric properties of the GHDT from a modern test theory perspective and verify the level of test unidimensionality; (2) the developmental nature of young children's HFD; and (3) the effectiveness of each of the four GHDT sub-tests (DAM, DAW, SPM and SPF) to determine the extent to which each one contributed towards the understanding of the construct.

Methods: All children's drawings were collected, examined and scored in accordance with the GHDT scoring guides (Harris, 1967).

Sample: The cross-sectional aspect of the project facilitated the gathering of a broad range of HFD produced by children of different ages and abilities in each phase of data collection. The longitudinal aspect involved three phases of data collection over a 12-month time frame, which was useful for checking the results from the phase one analysis and for investigating the development of children's HFD over time.

Sample: Children (n = 107) were recruited from a large Preparatory to Year 12 school in Queensland, Australia (Preparatory, or 'Prep', is the name used to describe the first year of full-time schooling prior to Year One in Queensland, Australia). All children were aged within 4 to 10 years, the most appropriate age range for the GHDT (Goodenough, 1926; Harris, 1963), and had informed parental consent to participate in the study. The sample size, whilst comparatively small, was considered sufficient to reflect trends in the data.

Results: Results indicated that the GHDT components were generally psychometrically sound. Consequently, in the interests of parsimony and lessening test-load, a more culturally, socially and educationally relevant prototype Human Figure Drawing Continuum (HFDC) was constructed and examined.

Conclusions: Rasch analysis results revealed that the researcher-developed 45-item HFDC was just as effective as the three component GHDT (217-items in total) and yielded an easier, after and more child-friendly approach to testing.

Future Directions: Future research could involve: replication to investigate whether similar results can be achieved; a larger sample size including children from diverse backgrounds and with diverse needs; and an extended longitudinal aspect that spans longer than 12 months.

Item ID: 40791
Item Type: Conference Item (Presentation)
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2015 03:49
FoR Codes: 13 EDUCATION > 1301 Education Systems > 130102 Early Childhood Education (excl Maori) @ 60%
13 EDUCATION > 1303 Specialist Studies in Education > 130303 Education Assessment and Evaluation @ 10%
17 PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES > 1701 Psychology > 170103 Educational Psychology @ 30%
SEO Codes: 93 EDUCATION AND TRAINING > 9301 Learner and Learning > 930102 Learner and Learning Processes @ 50%
93 EDUCATION AND TRAINING > 9301 Learner and Learning > 930199 Learner and Learning not elsewhere classified @ 50%
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