Coral reefs next to a major conurbation: a study of temporal change (1985−2011) in coral cover and composition in the reefs of Jakarta, Indonesia

Cleary, Daniel F.R., Pólonia, Ana R.M., Renema, Willem, Hoeksema, Bert W., Wolstenholme, Jackie, Tuti, Yosephine, and de Voogd, Nicole J. (2014) Coral reefs next to a major conurbation: a study of temporal change (1985−2011) in coral cover and composition in the reefs of Jakarta, Indonesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 501. pp. 89-98.

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Coral reefs are diverse, ecologically important and globally threatened ecosystems. Numerous studies have reported on the threats to coral reefs, which include both local perturbations, such as pollution and overfishing, and widespread phenomena, such as bleaching. Here, we report on the history of the Jakarta Bay−Thousand Islands reef system from 1985 to 2011. Over this period, we recorded significant shifts in coral generic composition and an overall decline in coral cover with widely different trajectories between in-, mid- and offshore zones. In 1985, coral cover exhibited a clear on-to-offshore gradient with low coral cover inshore (10%), moderate cover midshore (49%) and high cover offshore (74%). The low coral cover inshore contrasts strongly with reports of high coral cover for inshore reefs in 1929. Inshore, coral cover declined from 10% in 1985 to <5% in 1995. The greatest change in coral cover and composition, however, occurred in offshore reefs, where mean cover declined from 74 to <20% between 1985 and 1995. Acropora species were particularly affected and declined from 36 to just 5% cover offshore. Recovery of coral cover occurred offshore between 1995 and 2005. From 2005 to 2011, however, a less severe loss in coral cover was observed. With the exception of inshore reefs, which appear to be on an ongoing trajectory of decline that started before the 1985 surveys, the reefs of the Jakarta Bay−Thousand Islands system have shown a propensity to recover.

Item ID: 32440
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1616-1599
Keywords: coral cover, disturbance, Java, life form, long-term study
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Copyright: © The authors 2014. Open Access under Creative Commons by Attribution Licence. Use, distribution and reproduction are un-restricted. Authors and original publication must be credited.

Funders: UNESCO, Research Centre for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (PPO-LIPI, Jakarta), Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology
Date Deposited: 01 Apr 2014 04:09
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060202 Community Ecology (excl Invasive Species Ecology) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960808 Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity @ 100%
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