CAR (Concepts, Action & Reflection) in service-learning: an innovative learning experience beyond knowing and doing

Li, Wendy, and Miller, Daniel (2013) CAR (Concepts, Action & Reflection) in service-learning: an innovative learning experience beyond knowing and doing. In: Presentations from the 4th Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Service-Learning. From: 4th Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Service-Learning, 4-7 June 2013, Hong Kong.

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[Extract] Background:

• The term service learning was coined in 1967 by Sigmon and Ramsey (Giles & Eyler, 1994).

• There have been many definitions of service learning since then.

• Some define service learning as reflective learning combined with service participation (Schwartman, 2001).

• On the other hand, some define service learning as a coursed-based, credit-bearing educational experience in which students participate in an organized service activity and then reflect on the activity to gain further understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility (Bringle & Hatcher, 1999).

• These definitions focus on service learning as a kind of education.

• In recent decades, researchers and educators have considered service learning from another angle, that is, service learning as a philosophy (Giles & Eyler, 1994).

• Given that service learning has suffered from a lack of a well articulated conceptual framework, the concept of service learning as a philosophy provides a new window into theorising about service learning.

• John Dewey's social and political philosophy of experimentalism (which is not to be confused with the more common usage of the term, i.e., a heavy reliance on the experimental method) has been regarded as a theoretical root of service learning (Giles & Eyler, 1994).

• For Dewey, experimentalism emphasizes the principles of experience, inquiry and reflection (Dewey, 1938). These principles are core elements of service learning.

• From the perspective of service learning as a philosophy, experiential learning, which is distinguished from cognitive learning by Rogers (1969), can be regarded as a broader form of service learning. CAR is a case of experiential learning.

• According to Rogers, learning is facilitated greatly when the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction, and when the learning is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems.

• Rogers also emphasizes self-evaluation (or reflection) as the principal method of assessing progress or success. The importance of learning to learn, and openness to change and personal growth is emphasized in Rogers experiential learning.

• CAR in my social psychology teaching is a case of experiential learning.

• CAR stands for concepts (core knowledge and understanding to engage in action), action (applied active learning of concepts in a community context) and reflection (analytical, evaluative and critical reflective frameworks).

• CAR promotes an experiential pedagogy that is discursive, flexible and reflective (Hauser, 2010).

• CAR is an Innovative learning experience beyond knowing and doing.

• Research questions:

1) How to structure reflection and critical thinking in social psychology;

2) How reflection and critical thinking impact on students' personal and professional development and growth; and

3) How reflection makes a difference in achieving the learning outcomes of Service-Learning.

Item ID: 28075
Item Type: Conference Item (Presentation)
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Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2014 03:01
FoR Codes: 13 EDUCATION > 1302 Curriculum and Pedagogy > 130205 Humanities and Social Sciences Curriculum and Pedagogy (excl Economics, Business and Management) @ 60%
17 PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES > 1701 Psychology > 170113 Social and Community Psychology @ 40%
SEO Codes: 93 EDUCATION AND TRAINING > 9302 Teaching and Instruction > 930201 Pedagogy @ 100%
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