The immunobiology of the innate response to Toxoplasma gondii

Miller, Catherine M., Boulter, Nicola R., Ikin, Rowan J., and Smith, Nicholas C. (2009) The immunobiology of the innate response to Toxoplasma gondii. International Journal for Parasitology, 39 (1). pp. 23-39.

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Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is a unique intracellular parasite. It can infect a variety of cells in virtually all warm-blooded animals. It has a worldwide distribution and, overall, around one-third of people are seropositive for the parasite, with essentially the entire human population being at risk of infection. For most people, T. gondii causes asymptomatic infection but the parasite can cause serious disease in the immunocompromised and, if contracted for the first time during pregnancy, can cause spontaneous abortion or congenital defects, which have a substantial emotional, social and economic impact. Toxoplasma gondii provokes one of the most potent innate, pro-inflammatory responses of all infectious disease agents. It is also a supreme manipulator of the immune response so that innate immunity to T. gondii is a delicate balance between the parasite and its host involving a coordinated series of cellular interactions involving enterocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer cells. Underpinning these interactions is the regulation of complex molecular reactions involving Toll-like receptors, activation of signalling pathways, cytokine production and activation of anti-microbial effector mechanisms including generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates.

Item ID: 26393
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1879-0135
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; Apicomplexa; parasite; innate immunity; inflammatory response; immunomodulation
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2013 00:07
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1108 Medical Microbiology > 110803 Medical Parasitology @ 70%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1107 Immunology > 110707 Innate Immunity @ 30%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970106 Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences @ 40%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences @ 40%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 20%
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