Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine

Surawski, Nicholas C., Miljevic, Branka, Roberts, Boyd A., Modini, Robin L., Situ, Rong, Brown, Richard J., Bottle, Steven E., and Ristovski, Zoran D. (2010) Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine. Environmental Science and Technology, 44 (1). pp. 229-235.

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Abstract

Particle emissions, volatility, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated for a pre-Euro I compression ignition engine to study the potential health impacts of employing ethanol fumigation technology. Engine testing was performed in two separate experimental campaigns with most testing performed at intermediate speed with four different load settings and various ethanol substitutions. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to determine particle size distributions, a volatilization tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) was used to explore particle volatility, and a new profluorescent nitroxide probe, BPEAnit, was used to investigate the potential toxicity of particles. The greatest particulate mass reduction was achieved with ethanol fumigation at full load, which contributed to the formation of a nucleation mode. Ethanol fumigation increased the volatility of particles by coating the particles with organic material or by making extra organic material available as an external mixture. In addition, the particle-related ROS concentrations increased with ethanol fumigation and were associated with the formation of a nucleation mode. The smaller particles, the increased volatility, and the increase in potential particle toxicity with ethanol fumigation may provide a substantial barrier for the uptake of fumigation technology using ethanol as a supplementary fuel.

Item ID: 16363
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1520-5851
Keywords: particle emissions, volatility, reactive oxygen species, health impacts, ethanol fumigation technology
Funders: Australian Research Council Linkage Grant (LP0775178)
Date Deposited: 23 May 2011 02:58
FoR Codes: 09 ENGINEERING > 0915 Interdisciplinary Engineering > 091599 Interdisciplinary Engineering not elsewhere classified @ 40%
09 ENGINEERING > 0902 Automotive Engineering > 090201 Automotive Combustion and Fuel Engineering (incl Alternative/Renewable Fuels) @ 30%
03 CHEMICAL SCIENCES > 0305 Organic Chemistry > 030501 Free Radical Chemistry @ 30%
SEO Codes: 85 ENERGY > 8505 Renewable Energy > 850501 Biofuel (Biomass) Energy @ 40%
86 MANUFACTURING > 8613 Transport Equipment > 861302 Automotive Equipment @ 30%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9601 Air Quality > 960106 Urban and Industrial Air Quality @ 30%
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