High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

Reinke, N.B., and O'Brien, G.M. (2006) High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight? Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 176 (8). pp. 729-737.

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Abstract

Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells’ capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b 5 reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P < 0.001). Further, their capacity to limit GSH depletion to 50% and reduce methaemoglobin (in the presence of glucose), despite ongoing exposure to PMS may result from having ten-fold higher activity of G6PD and 6PGD than sheep (P < 0.001), indicating the presence of a very efficient pentose phosphate pathway in flying-foxes.

Item ID: 9953
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1432-136X
Keywords: red blood cells; Chiroptera; oxidative stress; antioxidant
Date Deposited: 01 Apr 2010 00:58
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0606 Physiology > 060604 Comparative Physiology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960499 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species not elsewhere classified @ 50%
97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences @ 50%
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